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Britton B. Stephens, Peter S. Bakwin, Pieter P. Tans, Ron M. Teclaw, and Daniel D. Baumann

layer to the interior of continents, and to apply these continental measurements to study global CO 2 budgeting, terrestrial biospheric processes, atmospheric transport, and industrial emissions. Presently, observed trends in atmospheric O 2 provide our best constraint on the long-term global partitioning of terrestrial and oceanic sinks for anthropogenic CO 2 ( Houghton et al. 2001 ). A key value in calculating this partitioning is the assumed O 2 :CO 2 ratio for the terrestrial uptake of

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Boyd T. Tolton

1. Introduction The anthropogenic emission of CO 2 has substantially altered the global carbon cycle and is expected to result in significant climate change. However, our ability to predict this change is significantly hampered by uncertainties in our understanding of the global budget of CO 2 . It is estimated that approximately half of the anthropogenically emitted CO 2 remains in the atmosphere. The remaining half, often called the missing carbon, is sequestered by the oceans and the

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Daniel P. Zitterbart, Heather R. Smith, Michael Flau, Sebastian Richter, Elke Burkhardt, Joe Beland, Louise Bennett, Alejandro Cammareri, Andrew Davis, Meike Holst, Caterina Lanfredi, Hanna Michel, Michael Noad, Kylie Owen, Aude Pacini, and Olaf Boebel

. Arctic , 71 , 15 – 26 , https://doi.org/10.14430/arctic4698 . 10.14430/arctic4698 Erbe , C. , R. Dunlop , and S. Dolman , 2018 : Effects of noise on marine mammals. Effects of Anthropogenic Noise on Animals , H. Slabbekoorn et al., Eds., Springer Handbook of Auditory Research, Vol. 66, Springer Science and Business Media, 277–309 . 10.1007/978-1-4939-8574-6_10 Fais , A. , T. P. Lewis , D. P. Zitterbart , O. Álvarez , A. Tejedor , and N. Aguilar Soto , 2016 : Abundance

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Ralph A. Kahn, Andrew M. Sayer, Ziauddin Ahmad, and Bryan A. Franz

correcting for bidirectional effects of the air–sea interface and inhomogeneity of the subsurface light field ( Morel et al. 2002 ), and then dividing by E d (0 + ), the downwelling irradiance just above the sea surface ( Wang 2010 ). [Formally, E d (0 + ) = μ 0 F 0 t 0 , where μ 0 is the cosine of the solar zenith angle, F 0 is the instantaneous extraterrestrial solar irradiance, and t 0 is the atmospheric diffuse transmittance from the sun to the surface.] Retrieval of R rs from space

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Yongfu Xu, Shigeaki Aoki, and Koh Harada

synchronous integration. We are particularly interested in the difference of distributions of anthropogenic tracers between asynchronous and synchronous integrations. Our test case showed that there might be some significant differences of tracer distributions in the ocean between the asynchronous and synchronous integrations. The difference depends on the ratio ( α ) of tracer time step to momentum time step, and can be removed with the adjustment of synchronous integration. Passive tracers are often

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Ann M. Fridlind and Andrew S. Ackerman

1. Introduction The interactions of aerosols with clouds represent a leading source of uncertainty in quantifying anthropogenic radiative forcing of climate globally since preindustrial times ( Solomon et al. 2007 ). Clouds are also reported to constitute the largest source of uncertainty in climate sensitivity to radiative forcing in current coupled ocean–atmosphere climate models ( Soden and Held 2006 ). In the tropics, differences in the predicted sensitivity of marine boundary layer clouds

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Francesco Raffa, Giovanni Ludeno, Giuseppa Buscaino, Gianmaria Sannino, Adriana Carillo, Rosario Grammauta, Domenico Spoto, Francesco Soldovieri, Salvatore Mazzola, and Francesco Serafino

lightning can produce sounds at lower frequencies that contribute to background noise even when the locality of the storm is at considerable distances ( Cotter 2009 ). Anthropogenic noise in coastal areas could represent an important component of underwater sound level ( Buscaino et al. 2016 ) and could negatively impact many marine organisms ( Filiciotto et al. 2014 ; Celi et al. 2016 ; Buscaino et al. 2010 ; Sarà et al. 2007 ). Anthropogenic noise is mainly due to vessel traffic, particularly at

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Richard Wagener, Seth Nemesure, and Stephen E. Schwartz

1. Introduction Shortwave radiative forcing of climate due to an estimated global-average increase in anthropogenic sulfate aerosol optical depth of Δ τ a = 0.04 is of comparable magnitude, but opposite sign, to longwave forcing by greenhouse gases ( Charlson et al. 1991 ; Charlson et al. 1992 ; Houghton et al. 1992 ; Houghton et al. 1994 ; Kiehl and Briegleb 1993 ; Boucher and Anderson 1995 ; Schwartz 1996 ). It is therefore important that this forcing be accurately represented in

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Peer Fietzek, Björn Fiedler, Tobias Steinhoff, and Arne Körtzinger

1. Introduction The measurement of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in seawater is important and valuable for a large number of scientific, industrial, and socioeconomic issues. Major scientific interest is related to the anthropogenic increase of atmospheric CO 2 concentrations and the resulting oceanic uptake of this most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas ( Sabine et al. 2004 ; Rogner et al. 2007 ). The exchange of CO 2 across the air–sea interface and the dynamics and trends of the

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Laurent Menut and Bertrand Bessagnet

aerosols are considered: transport, turbulence, chemistry, emissions, and wet and dry deposition. The preparation of all input data is done for (i) the simulation domain, including the 3D mesh and land use; (ii) the meteorological fields; (iii) the chemical boundary conditions; and (iv) the surface anthropogenic and biogenic emissions. For simplicity, we consider no mineral dust, biomass burning, or sea salt emissions. The simulation is performed for two periods, each lasting 5 days. The period is

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