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Kotaro Katsube and Masaru Inatsu

remote effects of the TC-induced wave. We here discuss a remote effect of the TC-induced waves beyond a local baroclinic response near the TC shown in section 4a . The teleconnection pattern is excited from the local response near the TC. For example, the response to diabatic heating for the typhoon Songda on 1 September 2004 includes a cyclone anomaly to the north of the TC prevailing over the Sea of Okhotsk and an anticyclone anomaly to its east ( Fig. 13a ). The refractive index ( Hoskins and

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Takuya Nakanowatari, Humio Mitsudera, Tatsuo Motoi, Ichiro Ishikawa, Kay I. Ohshima, and Masaaki Wakatsuchi

transported effectively to low latitudes through the NPIW pathway ( Sarmiento et al. 2004 ). It has also been reported that iron, an essential micronutrient for phytoplankton, originates from the OSIW and may lead to abundant biological productivity in the North Pacific ( Nishioka et al. 2007 ). Furthermore, long-term changes in the water mass are likely to be crucial for the carbon cycle and pertinent to global warming issues. The net anthropogenic CO 2 flux from the Okhotsk Sea to the Pacific is

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Bunmei Taguchi and Niklas Schneider

1. Introduction Pacific decadal variability (PDV) is a crucial low-frequency variability that regulates, together with a global warming trend due to anthropogenic forcing, near-term (10–30 yr) climate and weather in Pacific rim countries, as well as ecosystems in the Pacific Ocean (e.g., Mantua et al. 1997 ; Nakamura et al. 1997 ; Minobe 1997 ; Schneider and Cornuelle 2005 ; Di Lorenzo et al. 2008 ; Solomon et al. 2011 ; Liu 2012 ). Because of the societal impact of PDV (and the

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Ayumu Miyamoto, Hisashi Nakamura, and Takafumi Miyasaka

1. Introduction Low-level clouds strongly cool the earth as they reflect a large fraction of insolation while emitting longwave radiation nearly as much as the earth’s surface ( Hartmann and Short 1980 ). In fact, a small change in fractional coverage of low-level clouds could offset anthropogenic global warming ( Randall et al. 1984 ). Since their formation is governed by small-scale turbulent processes, however, low-level clouds are not well represented in global climate models, introducing

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