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Laurie Yung, Nicky Phear, Alayna DuPont, Jess Montag, and Daniel Murphy

century, 55% attributed warming to human activities, while 41% said that warming was due to natural causes ( Gallup 2015 ). Recent research indicates that individuals attribute local changes, such as warmer winters, to either natural variation or anthropogenic climate change based on their climate change beliefs, beliefs that are heavily influenced by political ideology ( McCright et al. 2014 ). Ascribing specific changes, such as drought, to natural cycles rather than anthropogenic climate change is

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Susan A. Crate

approaches to facilitate effective adaptation ( Parry et al. 2007 ; Crate and Nuttall 2009 ). One of the main effects, as climate change proceeds, is the unprecedented alteration of earth’s water regimes 2 ( Anderson et al. 2008 ; Stohlgren et al. 2007 ; van Dam 2003 ). Bates et al. (2008 , p. 3) wrote on water resources: Observational records and climate projections provide abundant evidence that freshwater resources are vulnerable and have the potential to be strongly impacted by climate change

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Savin S. Chand, Lynda E. Chambers, Mike Waiwai, Philip Malsale, and Elisabeth Thompson

making, particularly at a farm level. Indigenous knowledge for weather and seasonal climate forecasting is commonly practiced in many regions of the world (e.g., Raj 2006 ; King et al. 2008 ; Green et al. 2010 ; Lefale 2010 ; Chang’a et al. 2010 ; Acharya 2011 ; Chinlampianga 2011 ; Mogotsi et al. 2011 ; Shoko 2012 ; Risiro et al. 2012 ). However, there are growing concerns that changes in climatic conditions due to anthropogenic influences may be reducing the effectiveness of some local

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Peter Rudiak-Gould

1. Introduction Is climate change visible? The question is far from straightforward, animating citizens and scholars alike and provoking sharply divergent answers from different individuals and communities: “[N]o-one can see climate changing or feel it happening.” —Mike Hulme, geographer ( Hulme 2009 , p. 196) “Native nations of the Arctic and Subarctic are already feeling catastrophic effects of warmer temperatures, in the melting of sea ice, permafrost, and glaciers, and increases in fires

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Mimi Stith, Alessandra Giannini, John del Corral, Susana Adamo, and Alex de Sherbinin

owing to population pressure and poor agricultural practices to anthropogenic climate change, the mandate of the CILSS also ultimately shifted to its present manifestation: “To invest in research for food security and the fight against the effects of drought and desertification for a new ecological balance in the Sahel through: (1) The formulation, analysis, coordination and harmonization of strategies and policies; (2) The strengthening of scientific and technical cooperation; (3) The collection

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Chie Sakakibara

complicated, by necessity, in that they have had to adopt many of the environmentally destructive activities that are actually causing climate change: jet planes, automobiles, homes heated with gas and petroleum, powerboats, and snowmobiles just to name but a few. They often have to pursue these venues even if it might contradict the ICC role in the climate change debate. However, Iñupiat, their indigenous neighbors in the Arctic and subArctic, and most climate scientists agree that anthropogenic climate

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