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Jesse Winchester, Rezaul Mahmood, William Rodgers, Faisal Hossain, Eric Rappin, Joshua Durkee, and Themis Chronis

; Pielke 2001 ; Nair et al. 2011 ; Sen Roy et al. 2011 ). The current study investigates the effects of Kentucky Lake and Lake Barkley [also known as the Land between the Lakes (LBL)] on selected precipitation events using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model ( Figure 1 ). This is the second part of an exploratory and observational data–based research by Durkee et al. (2014) where 12 precipitation events around the LBL region of Kentucky and Tennessee were investigated. They have found

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Shuguang Liu, Ben Bond-Lamberty, Lena R. Boysen, James D. Ford, Andrew Fox, Kevin Gallo, Jerry Hatfield, Geoffrey M. Henebry, Thomas G. Huntington, Zhihua Liu, Thomas R. Loveland, Richard J. Norby, Terry Sohl, Allison L. Steiner, Wenping Yuan, Zhao Zhang, and Shuqing Zhao

major research directions within each theme for the coming 5 to 10 years. 2. Overall and specific roles of LCLUC on climate LCLUC resulting from both natural and anthropogenic forces has had major impacts on climate at the local to global scales. Especially during the past 10 years, efforts have been made to quantify the biogeochemical contribution of LCLUC-induced greenhouse gases acting at the global scale and analyze the biogeophysical effects of LCLUC on land–atmosphere coupling relevant at

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Kirk Zmijewski and Richard Becker

potential repercussion of this modification but proceeded with agricultural expansion anyway ( Waltham and Sholji 2001 ). To better understand what has happened in the watershed as a whole, a few questions must be answered: How much of the water is lost from the watershed through increased evapotranspiration? How much water is stored as groundwater? What are the combined effects of desertification in the areas formerly under the sea and from local climate change? What has the net effect been on water in

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Jean-Sébastien Landry, Navin Ramankutty, and Lael Parrott

considerably from the rest of the forest for many years.) Other anthropogenic and natural disturbances, however, lead to more complex changes in spatial heterogeneity through the temporary removal of tree cover over extensive areas, followed by forest regrowth. Fire and logging are important examples of such events, which we define as stand-clearing disturbances. At the global scale, fire burns about 350 Mha yr −1 ( Giglio et al. 2013 ) and emits 1.5–3 PgC yr −1 ( Mieville et al. 2010 ; van der Werf et

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Trevor Lewis and Walter Skinner

heat of freezing and thawing of moisture in the ground. Inversion of borehole temperatures to obtain estimates of past ground surface temperatures is an extremely good technique to obtain both the long-term-average GST and variations in the past GST at a particular site. However, to infer regional GSTs and regional surface air temperatures (SATs), local effects must be evaluated. Changes in the GST at a site may be caused by spatial variations in slope and elevation, as well as spatial and temporal

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J. Marshall Shepherd

microphysics, chemistry and precipitation rate in cold mountain clouds. Atmos. Environ. 34 : 2593 – 2602 . Borys , R. D. , D. H. Lowenthal , S. A. Cohn , and W. O. J. Brown . 2003 . Mountain and radar measurements of anthropogenic aerosol effects on snow growth and snowfall rate. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30 . 1538, doi:10.1029/2002GL016855 . Bouvette , T. , J. L. Lambert , and P. B. Bedient . 1982 . Revised rainfall frequency analysis for Houston. J. Hydraul. Div. Proc. Amer. Soc

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Christine Wiedinmyer, Xuexi Tie, Alex Guenther, Ron Neilson, and Claire Granier

developing regions. We show here that anthropogenic changes in land cover can have a substantial impact on emissions and chemistry. Regions with larger affected populations can also be identified and targeted for pollution controls. By sharing this knowledge, these results can be used to guide planners to use more effective land management practices that could reduce or prevent potential air quality problems in the future. We plan to next compare the magnitude of the chemical effects of potential future

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Steven L. Marcus

Earth effects. More recently, Dickey et al. (2011 , henceforth DMV ) used instrumental records of global-mean temperature extending back to the 1860s, corrected for anthropogenic effects by subtracting estimated forced changes computed from historical simulations made with coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation models by two different groups, as a climate index for quantitative comparisons with LOD. They found significant correlations with (negative) LOD leading the model

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David B. Lobell, Céline Bonfils, and Jean-Marc Faurès

1. Introduction Efforts to anticipate the impacts of climate change on crop production and food security depend critically on projections of future climate in agricultural regions. General circulation models (GCMs) commonly used to make these projections consider changes in atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and other well-mixed greenhouse gases, and many also consider changes in anthropogenic aerosol levels. However, few consider climate forcing from land-use changes, which

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D. M. Nover, J. W. Witt, J. B. Butcher, T. E. Johnson, and C. P. Weaver

1. Introduction Scenario analysis using general circulation model (GCM) output to drive hydrologic models is a common approach for assessing the potential effects of climate change on water resources. These studies are complicated by two challenges: 1) the large uncertainties associated with GCM simulations of future climate change, particularly for precipitation (see, e.g., Cox and Stephenson 2007 ; Räisänen 2007 ; Stainforth et al. 2007 ; Hawkins and Sutton 2011 ), and 2) the coarse

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