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Hailan Wang, Siegfried Schubert, Randal Koster, Yoo-Geun Ham, and Max Suarez

– 610 , doi: 10.1175/JHM510.1 . Kumar, A. , Schubert S. , and Suarez M. , 2003 : Variability and predictability of 200-mb seasonal mean heights during summer and winter . J. Geophys. Res. , 108 , 4169 , doi: 10.1029/2002JD002728 . Lim, Y.-K. , and Schubert S. , 2011 : The impact of ENSO and the Arctic Oscillation on winter temperature extremes in the southeast United States . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 38 , L15706 , doi: 10.1029/2011GL048283 . Lin, S.-J. , 2004 : A vertically

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Eric F. Wood, Siegfried D. Schubert, Andrew W. Wood, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Kingtse C. Mo, Annarita Mariotti, and Roger S. Pulwarty

predict the SST, and are there particular regions (or even ocean basins) where the large-scale atmospheric response is particularly sensitive to SST anomalies? At these time scales the unpredictable signal is typically dominated during the cold season by well-known atmospheric teleconnections (e.g., the NAO, Arctic Oscillation, and Pacific–North American patterns), while during the warm season there is now mounting evidence that large-scale planetary (Rossby) waves (also largely driven by processes

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Paul A. Dirmeyer, Jiangfeng Wei, Michael G. Bosilovich, and David M. Mocko

and Sudan has a large oscillation between oceanic sources in the winter and spring and terrestrial sources during summer into fall. Much of southern Africa has a similar variation, but 6 months out of phase. The general east–west gradient over North America is maintained throughout the year but fluctuates from a predominance of marine sources in winter to a much larger portion of continental sources in summer. Most of Eurasia also shows the same annual cycle as North America. Very strong gradients

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