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Weixin Xu and Steven A. Rutledge

evolution of mesoscale convective systems during TOGA COARE . J. Atmos. Sci. , 55 , 3493 – 3518 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1998)055<3493:TROESA>2.0.CO;2 . L’Heureux , M. L. , and R. W. Higgins , 2008 : Boreal winter links between the Madden–Julian oscillation and the Arctic Oscillation. J. Climate, 21, 3040–3050 , doi: 10.1175/2007JCLI1955.1 . Liebmann , B. , H. Hendon , and J. Glick , 1994 : The relationship between tropical cyclones of the western Pacific and Indian oceans and the

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Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Eric Maloney, and Susan C. van den Heever

1. Introduction The elusive understanding of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) continues to push the forefront of understanding tropical moist convection with regards to spatial- and temporal-scale interactions, air–sea feedbacks, teleconnections, and various other topics. This concentrated focus is driven by lack of a complete theory that explains the MJO initiation, growth, propagation, and spatial scale, as well as the failure of most general circulation models (GCMs) to accurately

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Zhe Feng, Sally A. McFarlane, Courtney Schumacher, Scott Ellis, Jennifer Comstock, and Nitin Bharadwaj

and rainfall associated with the Asian summer monsoon ( Annamalai and Slingo 2001 ), Australian summer monsoon ( Hendon and Liebmann 1990 ), and North American monsoon ( Lorenz and Hartmann 2006 ). The MJO also interacts with the North Atlantic Oscillation ( Lin et al. 2009 ), the Arctic Oscillation ( Zhou and Miller 2005 ), and the Antarctic Oscillation ( Carvalho et al. 2005 ). Global climate models generally underestimate the strength and intraseasonal variability of the MJO ( Zhang et al. 2006

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