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Christoph Zülicke, Erich Becker, Vivien Matthias, Dieter H. W. Peters, Hauke Schmidt, Han-Li Liu, Laura de la Torre Ramos, and Daniel M. Mitchell

-mean dynamics of extended recoveries from stratospheric sudden warmings . J. Atmos. Sci. , 70 , 688 – 707 , . 10.1175/JAS-D-12-0111.1 Hitchcock , P. , T. G. Shepherd , and G. L. Manney , 2013 : Statistical characterization of arctic polar-night jet oscillation events . J. Climate , 26 , 2096 – 2116 , . 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00202.1 Holton , J. R. , 1982 : The role of gravity wave induced drag and diffusion in

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Sonja Gisinger, Andreas Dörnbrack, Vivien Matthias, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Benedikt Ehard, Lars Hoffmann, Bernd Kaifler, Christopher G. Kruse, and Markus Rapp

indices. The Southern Oscillation index (SOI) is the difference in mean sea level pressure (MSLP) between the western and eastern tropical Pacific. In the austral winter months of June–August (JJA), negative SOI values are associated with anomalous southwesterly flow over New Zealand ( Gordon 1986 ) and a higher mean seasonal frequency of blockings ( Kidson 2000 ). In 2014, the monthly mean SOI taken from NCEP–NCAR reanalyses ( ) switched from positive

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David C. Fritts, Ronald B. Smith, Michael J. Taylor, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Andreas Dörnbrack, Markus Rapp, Bifford P. Williams, P.-Dominique Pautet, Katrina Bossert, Neal R. Criddle, Carolyn A. Reynolds, P. Alex Reinecke, Michael Uddstrom, Michael J. Revell, Richard Turner, Bernd Kaifler, Johannes S. Wagner, Tyler Mixa, Christopher G. Kruse, Alison D. Nugent, Campbell D. Watson, Sonja Gisinger, Steven M. Smith, Ruth S. Lieberman, Brian Laughman, James J. Moore, William O. Brown, Julie A. Haggerty, Alison Rockwell, Gregory J. Stossmeister, Steven F. Williams, Gonzalo Hernandez, Damian J. Murphy, Andrew R. Klekociuk, Iain M. Reid, and Jun Ma

, such as those that often accompany large radar and/or rocket facilities, have made especially valuable contributions to GW studies. This is because no single instrument can define all of the atmospheric properties and spatial and temporal variability needed to fully quantify the local GW field. Examples of these facilities include the Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research in Norway (69.3°N); the Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska (65.1°N); the Bear Lake Observatory in Utah (42°N

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Benedikt Ehard, Peggy Achtert, Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Jörg Gumbel, Mikhail Khaplanov, Markus Rapp, and Johannes Wagner

lidar for every output time. The horizontally interpolated vertical temperature profiles were then interpolated to the same vertical grid as specified by the Esrange lidar observations and averaged over the same time spans. The WRF vertical temperature profiles are relatively smooth compared to the lidar data because of the numerical scheme minimizing spurious oscillations at grid scale. Thus, no additional smoothing was applied. Finally, temperature perturbations were determined applying the same

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