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Andrea Schneidereit, Dieter H. W. Peters, Christian M. Grams, Julian F. Quinting, Julia H. Keller, Gabriel Wolf, Franziska Teubler, Michael Riemer, and Olivia Martius

.1 Hinssen , Y. , A. van Delden , and T. Opsteegh , 2011 : Influence of sudden stratospheric warmings on tropospheric winds . Meteor. Z. , 20 , 259 – 266 , doi: 10.1127/0941-2948/2011/0503 . 10.1127/0941-2948/2011/0503 Hitchcock , P. , T. G. Shepherd , and G. L. Manney , 2013 : Statistical characterization of Arctic polar-night jet oscillation events . J. Climate , 26 , 2096 – 2116 , doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00202.1 . 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00202.1 Holton , J. R. , 1992 : An

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Andrea Schneidereit, Silke Schubert, Pavel Vargin, Frank Lunkeit, Xiuhua Zhu, Dieter H. W. Peters, and Klaus Fraedrich

large-scale flow and in transients ( Blackburn et al. 2011 ). Two large-scale modes of variability characterize the summer 2010 affecting the circulation of the whole year: ENSO and the Arctic Oscillation (AO; Blunden et al. 2011 ) or North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). While ENSO shows a transition from El Niño to La Niña conditions, the AO is in a strong negative phase. European weather and ENSO are connected due to teleconnections that, starting from the eastern North Pacific storm track, continue

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Volkmar Wirth, Michael Riemer, Edmund K. M. Chang, and Olivia Martius

with large-scale flow regimes such as ENSO and the Arctic Oscillation ( Souders et al. 2014b ). Fig . 12. The probability of occurrence of significant (exceeding a lower-amplitude threshold, color shading) and extreme (exceeding a higher-amplitude threshold, contours every 0.5% beginning at 1.0%, in black) RWPs on both hemispheres. [The figure is taken from Fig. 2 of Souders et al. (2014b) .] Although there is a fair amount of agreement between the RWP object climatologies derived from different

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