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Peter Black, Lee Harrison, Mark Beaubien, Robert Bluth, Roy Woods, Andrew Penny, Robert W. Smith, and James D. Doyle

as eight RD-94 sondes can be operated simultaneously. The initial development of the XDD was known as the expendable digital radiosonde (XDR) and was tested on the NASA DC-8 during the Arctic Mechanisms of Interaction between the Surface and Atmosphere (AMISA) in 2008. A total of 36 XDRs were deployed over 6 days. Comparison with simultaneous radiosonde ascents from the Swedish Icebreaker Oden showed good results ( Gasiewski et al. 2009 ; Persson 2010 ). Modern XDD sondes are activated and

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David R. Ryglicki, James D. Doyle, Yi Jin, Daniel Hodyss, and Joshua H. Cossuth

Fig. 1 . According to nearly all of the center-finding methods, the upper levels (9, 11 km) and midlevels (6, 7 km) begin to wobble out of phase. This can be seen by the interweaving of the upper-level tilt magnitudes (11, 9 km) and the midlevel tilt magnitudes in the PV centroids ( Figs. 5d,e ) or the evolution of the tilt magnitudes in opposite directions in the pressure minimum ( Fig. 5c ) starting at 60 h and ending in the 84–90-h time frame. At 84 h, the oscillations cease, and the midlevel

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Nannan Qin and Da-Lin Zhang

. Overview Patricia originated from a tropical disturbance in the eastern North Pacific in mid-October, and it developed into a tropical depression at 0600 UTC 20 October 2015 after interacting with multiple weather systems, including a tropical wave over the Caribbean Sea, a gap wind event in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, and a strong Madden–Julian oscillation over the eastern Pacific ( Kimberlain et al. 2016 ). The tropical depression gradually intensified into a well-organized tropical storm on 21 October

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