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Xuezhi Bai, Jia Wang, Qinzheng Liu, Dongxiao Wang, and Yu Liu

1. Introduction The Arctic Oscillation (AO) was defined by Thompson and Wallace (1998) as the leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode of wintertime sea level pressure (SLP) anomalies over the extratropical Northern Hemisphere. The AO has an out-of-phase pattern in atmospheric pressure between the Arctic Basin and middle latitudes. It is shown to exert a strong influence on wintertime climate at virtually all longitudes ( Thompson and Wallace 2001 ), including far eastern Asia ( Gong

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Christopher J. Goodman and Jennifer D. Small Griswold

environmental conditions that impact DA. By understanding which airports are likely to see changes in the expected DAs as a result of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Arctic Oscillation (AO), scheduling of aircraft, especially those with heavy payloads, could be altered to take off or land during lower DA times, adjust the payload of flights, utilize aircraft with better performance, or plan for increased or decreased delays. 2. Global Impacts of ENSO and AO on density altitude a. El Niño

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Jonathan Edwards-Opperman, Steven Cavallo, and David Turner

) and its potential impact on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC; Rahmstorf et al. 2015 ). As the Arctic continues to warm, it is imperative that a better understanding of Greenland’s climate and the meteorological factors relating to the melt of the GIS is achieved. Previous research concerning atmospheric influences on the GIS has noted the importance of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The negative phase of the NAO (−NAO) has been linked with the advection of warm, moist

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Andrew J. Monaghan, Martyn P. Clark, Michael P. Barlage, Andrew J. Newman, Lulin Xue, Jeffrey R. Arnold, and Roy M. Rasmussen

meteorological forcing ( Beamer et al. 2016 ), variations in growing-season length as a function of temperature ( Park et al. 2016 ), infrastructure damage due to temperature-driven permafrost degradation ( Brubaker et al. 2011 ), and fluctuations in subsistence hunting and herding seasons due to temperature and snowfall variability ( Rattenbury et al. 2009 ). In turn, Alaska and the Arctic are experiencing among the highest rates of climate change globally ( Walsh 2014 ; Walsh et al. 2017 ). Major shifts

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R. W. Wilcox, G. D. Nastrom, and A. D. Belmont

amplitudescoincides with that of the annual wave, i.e., easternSiberia. This suggests that the QBO is effected throughthe same sort of transport process (i.e., standing waves)which govern the annual oscillation. The major featureof the QBO in the vertical distribution is the maximumamplitude in the arctic just above the tropopause.3) SEMIANNUAL WAVE The maximum in total ozone lies in the arctic, displaced slightly to the Siberian side. In the vertical, itsmaximum amplitude is near 18 km. The phase appearsto

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Peter A. Bieniek, Uma S. Bhatt, Richard L. Thoman, Heather Angeloff, James Partain, John Papineau, Frederick Fritsch, Eric Holloway, John E. Walsh, Christopher Daly, Martha Shulski, Gary Hufford, David F. Hill, Stavros Calos, and Rudiger Gens

://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/data/teledoc/pna.shtml ). Also retrieved from CPC were the Arctic Oscillation (AO; online at http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/precip/CWlink/daily_ao_index/ao.shtml ), Southern Oscillation index (SOI), and Niño region 3.4 (Niño-3.4) sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies (online at http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/data/indices/ ). The North Pacific index (NPI; online at http://www.cgd.ucar.edu/cas/jhurrell/npindex.html ) and the PDO (online at http://jisao.washington.edu/pdo/ ) were also used in this analysis. b

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Tanlong Dai, Wenjie Dong, Yan Guo, Tao Hong, Dong Ji, Shili Yang, Di Tian, Xiaohang Wen, and Xian Zhu

EAWM have a direct effect on the climate of China and the whole East Asian region ( Zhu et al. 2016 ). Cheung et al. (2016) pointed out that the Arctic Oscillation (AO) underwent a phase transformation in 1978 ( Cheung et al. 2016 ). The AO is an important atmospheric circulation teleconnection pattern in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, influenced by mass changes in the mid- to high-latitude atmosphere and forming a seesaw pattern, which in turn controls and affects many extreme

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Jacob Coburn

. , 8 , 015021 , https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/8/1/015021 . 10.1088/1748-9326/8/1/015021 Alexander , M. A. , K. H. Kilbourne , and J. A. Nye , 2014 : Climate variability during warm and cold phases of the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) 1871–2008 . J. Mar. Syst. , 133 , 14 – 26 , https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2013.07.017 . 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2013.07.017 Ambaum , M. H. P. , B. J. Hoskins , and D. B. Stephenson , 2001 : Arctic Oscillation or North Atlantic

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Lejiang Yu, Shiyuan Zhong, Xindi Bian, Warren E. Heilman, and Joseph J. Charney

://ljp.lasg.ac.cn/dct/page/65574 ), and the Arctic Oscillation (AO) ( http://ljp.lasg.ac.cn/dct/page/65569 ), as defined in Li and Wang (2003a , b ). b. Methods of analyses The study domain spans latitudinally from 20° to 50°N and longitudinally from 50° to 130°W, which includes the contiguous United States, southern Canada, and most of Mexico. By using NARR temperature and dewpoint data at several pressure levels in the lower to midtroposphere, HI is calculated for each NARR grid point in the study domain following the

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Andrew Clifton and Julie K. Lundquist

is quantified by using a set of meteorological parameters such as air temperature, sea surface temperature, or surface pressure. Some indices are linked to well-known climatological phenomena, such as El Niño/La Niña–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) or the Arctic Oscillation (AO). In some cases, the phenomena quantified by these indices are correlated with variations in wind activity. For example, previous work has suggested that winds in southern Alberta and Saskatchewan, Canada, vary with ENSO ( St

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