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Olivia Kellner and Dev Niyogi

warm (El Niño) and cold (La Niña) thresholds, respectively, with neutral events ranging from −0.4 to 0.4. Events are not further classified by −0.5 and +0.5 deviations into weak, moderate, or strong events for ease of use when product users are exploring the climatological data through the online tool interface. The same classification scheme is applied to the AO. The Arctic Oscillation is monitored through the application of an empirical orthogonal function to monthly mean sea level (1000 hPa

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Ayan H. Chaudhuri and Rui M. Ponte

. Ament , and T. Vihma , 2013 : The impact of heterogeneous surface temperatures on the 2-m air temperature over the Arctic Ocean under clear skies in spring . Cryosphere , 7 , 153 – 166 , doi: 10.5194/tc-7-153-2013 . Thompson , D. J. , and J. M. Wallace , 1998 : The Arctic Oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 25 , 1297 – 1300 , doi: 10.1029/98GL00950 . Tjernström , M. , and R. G. Graversen , 2009 : The

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Peter A. Bieniek, Uma S. Bhatt, Donald A. Walker, Martha K. Raynolds, Josefino C. Comiso, Howard E. Epstein, Jorge E. Pinzon, Compton J. Tucker, Richard L. Thoman, Huy Tran, Nicole Mölders, Michael Steele, Jinlun Zhang, and Wendy Ermold

North Pacific Oscillation–west Pacific teleconnection pattern: Mature-phase structure and winter impacts . J. Climate , 21 , 1979 – 1997 , doi: 10.1175/2007JCLI2048.1 . Liston , G. E. , and C. A. Hiemstra , 2011 : The changing cryosphere: Pan-Arctic snow trends (1979–2009) . J. Climate , 24 , 5691 – 5712 , doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00081.1 . Liu , J. P. , J. A. Curry , H. J. Wang , M. R. Song , and R. M. Horton , 2012a : Impact of declining Arctic sea ice on winter snowfall

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Wanli Wu, Amanda H. Lynch, Sheldon Drobot, James Maslanik, A. David McGuire, and Ute Herzfeld

performance in a single diagram. J. Geophys. Res. 106 : 7183 – 7192 . Thompson , D. W. J. and J. M. Wallace . 1998 . The Arctic Oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields. Geophys. Res. Lett. 25 : 1297 – 1300 . Uppala , S. M. Coauthors 2005 . The ERA-40 re-analysis. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 131 : 2961 – 3012 . Walsh , J. E. , V. Kattsov , D. Portis , and V. Meleshko . 1998 . Arctic precipitation and evaporation: Model results

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Steven L. Marcus

significant LOD correlations with Arctic climate indices over the twentieth century, and we found a strong correlation for the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) regional SST with LOD; however, the larger magnitude and significance level obtained for the LOD correlation with global SST ( Table 1 ) argues against a direct interaction between core-induced LOD, the orientation of the geomagnetic field, and the AMO. The synchronous geomagnetic and model-corrected NH temperature phasing with respect to

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Ruixin Yang, Allison Fairley, and Wonsun Park

, takes place. The opposite cold episode, or La Niña, corresponds to SSTA being less than −0.5°C in the same condition [ Climate Prediction Center (CPC) 2015 ]. Complimentary to these anomalous SST values, extreme fluctuations of atmospheric pressure at sea level are also identified throughout the Pacific Ocean, which is commonly known as the Southern Oscillation. These variations from the norm between the western and eastern Pacific are described by the Southern Oscillation index (SOI). The variation

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Soumaya Belmecheri, Flurin Babst, Amy R. Hudson, Julio Betancourt, and Valerie Trouet

were further compared to seasonal Pacific–North American (PNA), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Arctic Oscillation (AO), and El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO 3.4) data available from the NOAA climate prediction center (1959–2012). For each atmospheric circulation index, a bimonthly average was calculated corresponding to the seasons identified for the NHJ indices (JF, AM, JA, and ON). Correlation coefficients were computed between the NHJ index and each of the atmospheric circulation indices

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K. Dimitriou, G. R. McGregor, P. A. Kassomenos, and A. K. Paschalidou

phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation and positive sea surface pressure anomalies over the Arctic. In terms of the physical evolution of cold events, Walsh et al. (2001) also point out that the trajectories of the coldest westward-moving air masses over Europe are typified by subsidence of several hundred hectapascals before they reach the surface. As well as tropospheric processes, Tomassini et al. (2012) have suggested that stratosphere–troposphere coupling may play a role in the generation

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Mark R. Jury

related to a high phase (+2.3 anomaly in December 2013) Arctic Oscillation, causing the subtropical jet stream to shift southward. Figure 7a is a correlation map between ECMWF 200-mb zonal winds in December and the NCEP Arctic Oscillation for 1980–2012. There is a positive region denoting faster westerlies over the Antilles (12°N) and a negative region at ~25°N. Usually the subtropical jet stream lies poleward of the Antilles in December, thereby generating anticyclonic vorticity and sinking motion

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Christopher Potter, Pusheng Zhang, Steven Klooster, Vanessa Genovese, Shashi Shekhar, and Vipin Kumar

Earth’s oceans, including effects on circulation and salinity near the mouth of large rivers. For example, the thermohaline circulation is closely linked to the freshwater balance of the Arctic Ocean basin ( Driscoll and Haug, 1998 ). In semiclosed inland seas, such as the Mediterranean, circulation is strongly influenced by riverine inputs of freshwater. River discharge plays a key role in transport of dissolved and particulate materials within and from all the continents ( Ludwig and Probst, 1998

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