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Monica Ionita, Gerrit Lohmann, Norel Rimbu, and Silvia Chelcea

, 2943 – 2962 . Déry, S. J. , and Wood E. F. , 2004 : Teleconnection between the Arctic Oscillation and Hudson Bay river discharge . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 31 , L18205 , doi:10.1029/2004GL020729 . Desser, C. , and Blackmon M. L. , 1993 : Surface climate variations over the North Atlantic Ocean during winter: 1900–89 . J. Climate , 6 , 1743 – 1753 . Dettinger, M. D. , and Diaz H. F. , 2000 : Global characteristics of streamflow seasonality . J. Hydrometeor. , 1 , 289 – 310

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Hamish D. Pritchard, Daniel Farinotti, and Steven Colwell

in the lowland Finnish Arctic at 180-m altitude; 2) Silsersee, a 4.12-km 2 Swiss alpine valley lake at 1800-m altitude; and 3) Tomasee, a 0.025-km 2 , high-alpine cirque lake at 2345-m altitude, and the source of the River Rhine ( Fig. 1 ). In each case, we deployed commercially available, high-precision water-pressure sensors (nominal precision 0.1% full scale) on the lake bed, either in advance of the winter freeze-up or via a hole drilled through the winter ice cover. Fig . 1. Locations of

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Bin Yong, Liliang Ren, Yang Hong, Jonathan J. Gourley, Xi Chen, Jinwei Dong, Weiguang Wang, Yan Shen, and Jill Hardy

precipitation show that precipitation tends to gradually decrease from south to north for all decades. Interestingly, there is a significant decadal oscillation of spatial rainfall patterns. For instance, the mean annual precipitation of the basin is 535.1 mm during the 1950s ( Table 2 ), and the 400-mm precipitation contour is outside of the basin to the north ( Fig. 5a ). However, an obvious dry trend existed for the 1960s, and the 400-mm precipitation contour moved to the southwest part of the basin

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Hengchun Ye, Judah Cohen, and Michael Rawlins

dominant ones, but they do influence CT values to varying extents and with varying degrees of complexity. The near-surface vertical temperature profile is also critical to precipitation type. The strong inversion layer found in the Arctic may make it possible for rain to occur even at a very low surface air temperature ( Serreze et al. 1992 ; Bradley et al. 1992 ). In the Swiss Alps, Rohrer (1989) found that rain occurred with a surface air temperature of −5.8°C because of the presence of a strong

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Jay H. Lawrimore, David Wuertz, Anna Wilson, Scott Stevens, Matthew Menne, Bryant Korzeniewski, Michael A. Palecki, Ronald D. Leeper, and Thomas Trunk

(0.03 in.)] in gauge depth that occur in the absence of precipitation are removed by locating offsetting negative and positive oscillations. c. Removal of diurnal fluctuations Diurnal fluctuations of bucket values unrelated to precipitation are present in almost all F&P gauges with varying degrees of amplitude depending on maintenance procedures and climate zone. We have observed that diurnal fluctuations are typically manifested by a slow increase in reported gauge depth, apparently in response

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Muattar Saydi, Guoping Tang, Yan Qin, Hong Fang, and Xiaohua Chen

snowfall in the arid Central Asia; a high correlation, which is 0.51 and significant at the 99% confidence level, verifies their link ( Huang et al. 2013 ). Also, the recession in Arctic sea ice cover has played a significant role in supporting increased snowfall in the arid Central Asia ( Huang et al. 2015a ), probably because reduction of sea ice provides excessive moisture flux ( Liu et al. 2012 ). In addition, the enhanced pressure gradient caused by the North Atlantic Oscillation ( Huang et al

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Hua Su, Robert E. Dickinson, Kirsten L. Findell, and Benjamin R. Lintner

external forcing, owing to the relatively short memory of the atmosphere itself. The ocean is a substantial driver of low-frequency atmospheric variability through air–sea interaction, the effects of which can be propagated over large distances through teleconnections. Over extratropical North America, several well-known modes of low-frequency variability can strongly impact large-scale hydroclimatology in both cold and warm seasons, for example, the Arctic Oscillation (AO; data from http

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Rasool Porhemmat, Heather Purdie, Peyman Zawar-Reza, Christian Zammit, and Tim Kerr

snow water equivalent are the result of ARs ( Guan et al. 2010 ). Frequent landfalls of ARs accompanied by the negative phases of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the Pacific–North American (PNA) atmospheric circulation indices provide conditions favorable for anomalously high snow accumulation across the Sierra Nevada ( Guan et al. 2013 ). The penetration of ARs to the inland semiarid Southwest of the United States can lead to a contribution of more than 25% of winter precipitation ( Demaria et al

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Kian Abbasnezhadi, Alain N. Rousseau, Étienne Foulon, and Stéphane Savary

and complementary identifiability analysis . Hydrol. Processes , 28 , 3947 – 3961 , . 10.1002/hyp.9882 Brabets , T. P. , and M. A. Walvoord , 2009 : Trends in streamflow in the Yukon River Basin from 1944 to 2005 and the influence of the pacific decadal oscillation . J. Hydrol. , 371 , 108 – 119 , . 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.03.018 Brasnett , B. , 1999 : A global analysis of snow depth for numerical

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Yanbo Nie and Jianqi Sun

al. 2011 ), and atmospheric teleconnections, such as the Arctic Oscillation (AO) ( Jiang and Li 2011 ; Huang et al. 2012 ; Yang et al. 2012 ; Zhang et al. 2014 ), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) ( Xu et al. 2012 ; Feng et al. 2014 ; Song et al. 2014 ; Zhang et al. 2014 ), and Silk Road pattern ( Dong et al. 2018 , 2019 ). Generally, rain gauges provide the most reliable measurements to observe precipitation, but this may not be the case in SWC because the spatial representativeness of

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