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J. A. Whitehead

difference. In addition, the halocline in the Arctic Ocean is dominated by salinity difference from the North Atlantic Ocean rather than temperature difference, and its presence may be due to sluggish and constricted exchange between the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans. Experiments were conducted using two slightly different laboratory configurations. In one configuration ( Whitehead 1996 , 1998 ), a well-mixed chamber was connected laterally to the reservoir by two tubes one above the other. In the

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Carl Wunsch and Patrick Heimbach

change can be detected here. El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signals do become apparent and are a combination of regional (tropical) and atmospherically induced (nontropical) change. The issue of trends and drifts is one of the more difficult ones involved in using GCMs, and we postpone that discussion. For the moment, note only that some but by no means all of the v i ( t ) display starting transients ranging from a few months to 2+ years. The effect is particularly pronounced in the Atlantic

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