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Min Wen, Song Yang, Arun Kumar, and Peiqun Zhang

monsoon and the temperature and precipitation over China in winter have also been linked to the influence of the Arctic Oscillation (AO; Thompson and Wallace 1998 ). When the AO is positive, the monsoon is weak and temperature and precipitation increase over China ( Wu and Wang 2002 ; Gong and Wang 2003 ; Jeong and Ho 2005 ; Chen and Kang 2006 ). While the increase in precipitation occurs over a large part of the country, the warming is mainly limited to northern and northeastern China (e

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Yuta Ando, Masayo Ogi, and Yoshihiro Tachibana

control over variations of air temperatures over Japan, focusing on the anomalous cold winter of 2012/13 in the Northern Hemisphere. One of most important components of atmospheric circulation in the winter over the Northern Hemisphere is the Arctic Oscillation (AO) as defined by Thompson and Wallace (1998) . The winter AO is strongly coupled with SAT fluctuations over midlatitudes ( Thompson and Wallace 2000 ). The negative phase of the AO directly influences the occurrence of cold surges over East

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Kevin M. Grise, Seok-Woo Son, and John R. Gyakum

. Climate , 4 , 517 – 528 . L'Heureux , M. L. , and R. W. Higgins , 2008 : Boreal winter links between the Madden–Julian oscillation and the Arctic Oscillation . J. Climate , 21 , 3040 – 3050 . Lin , H. , G. Brunet , and J. Derome , 2009 : An observed connection between the North Atlantic Oscillation and the Madden–Julian Oscillation . J. Climate , 22 , 364 – 380 . Lin , H. , G. Brunet , and R. Mo , 2010 : Impact of the Madden–Julian oscillation on wintertime

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Jason M. Cordeira and Lance F. Bosart

, and North American large-scale flow patterns was examined by using the Pacific–North American (PNA) teleconnection index ( Wallace and Gutzler 1981 ; Barnston and Livezey 1987 ; Feldstein 2002 ) and the Arctic Oscillation (AO) as a measure of the “zonal index cycle” ( Rossby et al. 1939 ; Rossby and Willett 1948 ; Thompson and Wallace 2000 ) between October and November 1991. Daily values of the PNA index were calculated from the 2.5° × 2.5° gridded 0000 and 1200 UTC National Centers for

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Alexey Yu. Karpechko

://doi.org/10.1002/qj.3017 . 10.1002/qj.3017 Kim , Y.-J. , and M. Flatau , 2010 : Hindcasting the January 2009 Arctic sudden stratospheric warming and its influence on the Arctic Oscillation with unified parameterization of orographic drag in NOGAPS. Part I: Extended-range stand-alone forecast . Wea. Forecasting , 25 , 1628 – 1644 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2010WAF2222421.1 . 10.1175/2010WAF2222421.1 Kolstad , E. W. , T. Breiteig , and A. A. Scaife , 2010 : The association between

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H. van Loon, C. S. Zerefos, and C. C. Repapis

appears to be as follows: In the extreme of the Southern Oscillation when the trade winds arecomparatively weak in the South Pacific Ocean, stratospheric geopotential heights and temperatures tendto be higher over the Arctic and lower in middle latitudes than in the opposite extreme. At the same time,the polar-night stratospheric jetstream tends to be weaker and the subtropical westerlies to be stronger. Theconclusions are based on 11 extremes within a 15-year period and on data at standard pressure

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Jennifer K. Hutchings, Petra Heil, and William D. Hibler III

scale controlling the geometry and stress propagation to the smaller scales. Hence, the system may sustain discrete scale invariance due to a built-in geometrical hierarchy. Another important observation of sea ice deformation is an ubiquitous semidiurnal oscillation in sea ice motion and deformation throughout the Arctic and Antarctic ice packs. The semidiurnal fluctuation in ice motion, during the Arctic summer, was first described by Hunkins (1967) as an inertial oscillation of the oceanic

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Matthew B. Souders, Brian A. Colle, and Edmund K. M. Chang

Arctic Oscillation (AO) are frequently linked to each other ( Feldstein and Franzke 2006 ), and wave breaking may be linked to RWPs, RWPs may play a role in changes in the AO. It was found that the frequency of wave breaking has a statistically significant correlation with the magnitude of the AO ( Strong and Magnusdottir 2008 ). Similarly, changes in the large-scale seasonal climate have been linked to changes in the storm tracks and in cyclone behavior. The El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has

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Anna Maidens, Alberto Arribas, Adam A. Scaife, Craig MacLachlan, Drew Peterson, and Jeff Knight

( Rodwell and Folland 2002 ; Taws et al. 2011 ); the tropical Pacific and El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) state ( Bell et al. 2009 ); Arctic ice extent ( Strey et al. 2010 ); and Eurasian snow extent in autumn ( Cohen and Entekhabi 1999 ). Generally speaking, these slowly varying physical drivers act by introducing heat sources that drive wave activity; Rossby wave breaking higher in the atmosphere then drives the NAO state and surface temperature response ( Woollings et al. 2008 ; Frankze et al

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Wilbur Y. Chen and Huug Van den Dool

) suggested that the NAO might be thought of as part of a symmetric “annular” mode of variability, the Arctic Oscillation (AO), which is characterized by a seesaw of atmospheric mass between the polar cap and the midlatitudes in both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Baldwin and Dunkerton (1999) addressed the propagation of the AO from the stratosphere to the troposphere. Ambaum and Hoskins (2002) established the relationship among surface pressure variation associated with the NAO, tropopause height

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