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David M. Schultz

Schultz and Roebber (2005, manuscript submitted to Amer. Meteor. Soc. Meteor. Monogr. , hereafter SR), Hutchinson and Bluestein (1998) and Schultz (2004) attributed these prefrontal wind shifts to drylines (e.g., Schaefer 1986 ) or lee troughs. As illustrated schematically in Fig. 4a , westerly flow across the Rocky Mountains leads to the formation of a lee trough. An equatorward-moving cold/arctic front and prefrontal warm advection causes the movement of the lee trough away from the mountains

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Robert Wood

adiabatic ( section 3a ). The vertical liquid water gradient is estimated using the MODIS-derived cloud-top temperature. Wood and Bretherton (2004) have additional details. (b) Compilation of measurements of stratocumulus cloud thicknesses from observational case studies using aircraft and ground-based remote sensing, with all cases (gray) and midlatitude and Arctic cases (black) presented separately. Data are from the published literature and available datasets from recent stratocumulus field

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Clark Evans, Kimberly M. Wood, Sim D. Aberson, Heather M. Archambault, Shawn M. Milrad, Lance F. Bosart, Kristen L. Corbosiero, Christopher A. Davis, João R. Dias Pinto, James Doyle, Chris Fogarty, Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., Christian M. Grams, Kyle S. Griffin, John Gyakum, Robert E. Hart, Naoko Kitabatake, Hilke S. Lentink, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, William Perrie, Julian F. D. Quinting, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Michael Riemer, Elizabeth A. Ritchie, Yujuan Sun, and Fuqing Zhang

Ritchie (2014a , their Figs. 10a,b). Similar to other basins, peak ENP ET activity occurs in September and October, which is offset from peak TC activity in July and August due to more frequent midlatitude troughs and a weaker subtropical ridge later ( Wood and Ritchie 2014a ). ENP ET frequency increases during developing warm-phase El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, as comparatively high subtropical SST and more midlatitude troughs during warm-phase ENSO events may increase the likelihood of

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Volkmar Wirth, Michael Riemer, Edmund K. M. Chang, and Olivia Martius

with large-scale flow regimes such as ENSO and the Arctic Oscillation ( Souders et al. 2014b ). Fig . 12. The probability of occurrence of significant (exceeding a lower-amplitude threshold, color shading) and extreme (exceeding a higher-amplitude threshold, contours every 0.5% beginning at 1.0%, in black) RWPs on both hemispheres. [The figure is taken from Fig. 2 of Souders et al. (2014b) .] Although there is a fair amount of agreement between the RWP object climatologies derived from different

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