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Christopher G. Kruse and Ronald B. Smith

1. Introduction Gravity waves are atmospheric buoyancy oscillations that transport energy and horizontal momentum vertically throughout the atmosphere ( McLandress 1998 ). The vertical propagation and dissipation of gravity waves are important as the carried energy and momentum are deposited wherever these waves break, affecting the mean flow. Gravity waves and their dissipation have long been recognized to be important in middle atmosphere dynamics ( Fritts 1989 ). Important gravity wave

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Ronald B. Smith, Alison D. Nugent, Christopher G. Kruse, David C. Fritts, James D. Doyle, Steven D. Eckermann, Michael J. Taylor, Andreas Dörnbrack, M. Uddstrom, William Cooper, Pavel Romashkin, Jorgen Jensen, and Stuart Beaton

” sensors are given in Table 1 . Table 1. Primary sensor uncertainties on the GV. From these values, we can estimate the errors that enter the flux calculation. As mean values are removed before flux computation, the flux errors arise only from the random errors. To propagate the errors for momentum flux we imagine a transect with anticorrelated sinusoidal u ′ and w ′ oscillations with amplitudes of 5 and 1 m s −1 , respectively. With air density of 0.3 kg m −3 , we define a reference value MF x

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Tyler Mixa, Andreas Dörnbrack, and Markus Rapp

1. Introduction Large-amplitude gravity wave oscillations were observed directly above and in the lee of the Southern Ocean’s Auckland Island (50.8°S, 166.1°E) within the mesospheric airglow and sodium layers at ~78–83 km altitudes during research flight RF23 of the Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (DEEPWAVE) ( Fritts et al. 2016 ; Pautet et al. 2016 ). Remarkable for these altitudes, the gravity wave phase lines spread horizontally in a pattern common to the lower troposphere ( Gjevik

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Qingfang Jiang, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, and Bifford P. Williams

STW oscillations are again seen in aircraft lidar temperatures ( Fig. 5e ) and in AIRS brightness temperatures ( Fig. 5f ), whereas wave signals are noticeably weaker in the flight-level temperatures in Fig. 5g . Fig . 5. (a) Ground track of GV HIAPER RF07 (gray curves) on 19 Jun 2014, with flight legs 3, 5, 6, and 7 marked in red, blue, orange, and cyan, respectively. (right) Perturbations as a function of flight distance along the separate flight legs from the reference points marked by stars

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