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Benjamin A. Toms, Susan C. van den Heever, Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Eric D. Maloney

local radiative and evaporative processes: The implications for intraseasonal oscillations . J. Atmos. Sci. , 54 , 2373 – 2386 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1997)054<2373:TFBECA>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1997)054<2373:TFBECA>2.0.CO;2 Harrington , J. Y. , 1997 : The effects of radiative and microphysical processes on simulated warm and transition season Arctic stratus. Ph.D. dissertation, Colorado State University, 289 pp . Hayashi , Y. , 1980 : Estimation of nonlinear energy

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Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Eric D. Maloney, Benjamin A. Toms, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Susan C. van den Heever

1. Introduction Tropical intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) are 30–90-day modes of tropical convection that generally initiate in the Indian Ocean ( Zhang 2005 ; Lee et al. 2013 ). During the boreal winter, the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) is the dominant tropical ISO with convection propagating predominantly eastward over the Maritime Continent (MC) and waning in the central Pacific ( Madden and Julian 1972 ; Zhang 2005 ). The MC includes the water and islands in the area of 10°S–20°N, 90

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Adam V. Rydbeck, Tommy G. Jensen, and Matthew R. Igel

boundary layer convergence during the initiation and propagation of the intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) ( Madden and Julian 1971 ; Hsu and Li 2012 ; Carbone and Li 2015 ; Rydbeck and Jensen 2017 ). Hsu and Li (2012) observed a moisture increase below 700 hPa to the east of ISO convection that is largely driven by horizontal moisture convergence. Using a simplified boundary layer model, 75%–90% of the boundary layer convergence to the east of ISO convection was forced by the large-scale atmospheric

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