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Siegfried D. Schubert, Hailan Wang, Randal D. Koster, Max J. Suarez, and Pavel Ya. Groisman

tendency toward wetter conditions throughout the twentieth century. Frey and Smith (2003) examined precipitation and temperature trends in station observations from western Siberia, a region with a large percentage of the world’s peatlands, and one that contributes substantially to the terrestrial freshwater flux into the Arctic Sea. They found robust patterns of springtime warming and wintertime precipitation increases, with the Arctic Oscillation (AO) playing an important role in nonsummer warming

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Siegfried D. Schubert, Ronald E. Stewart, Hailan Wang, Mathew Barlow, Ernesto H. Berbery, Wenju Cai, Martin P. Hoerling, Krishna K. Kanikicharla, Randal D. Koster, Bradfield Lyon, Annarita Mariotti, Carlos R. Mechoso, Omar V. Müller, Belen Rodriguez-Fonseca, Richard Seager, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Lixia Zhang, and Tianjun Zhou

Battisti 2000 ) and of its link to global warming ( Gillett et al. 2003 ), its connection to the Arctic Oscillation (AO; Ambaum et al. 2001 ), its link to the stratosphere ( Scaife et al. 2005 ), and its possible modulation by ENSO ( Brönnimann 2007 ) and other modes of variability such as the Scandinavian (SCA) and East Atlantic (EA) patterns (e.g., Comas-Bru and McDermott 2014 ). In fact, SCA, EA, and the East Atlantic/Western Russia (EAWR) patterns ( Barnston and Livezey 1987 ) have also been

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Lixia Zhang and Tianjun Zhou

, respectively. The selected period is 1979–90, and the wet and dry years are as in Wu and Qian (1996) . The atmospheric circulations and precipitation anomalies are based on NCEP–NCAR and CRU, respectively. Besides the heating of the TP, many other factors might affect drought in NW China. For instance, the snow depth of the TP ( Wu et al. 1998 ), the summer Arctic Oscillation (AO) ( P. Wang et al. 2007 ), and ENSO ( Li and Li 2004 ). When the summer AO is weaker, a cyclonic anomaly appears in Baikal and

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