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Richard I. Cullather and Sophie M. J. Nowicki

communicating melt energy to the ice sheet surface via increased downwelling longwave fluxes. Recently, Tedesco et al. (2016a) noted the role of Arctic high pressure systems in producing increased melt over the northern regions of the GrIS during the 2016 season. The large-scale atmospheric circulation may produce increased melt by providing cloudless conditions that enhance solar radiation, by the advection of warm air over the ice sheet ( Fettweis et al. 2011 ), by providing moisture and cloud cover

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Gloria L. Manney and Michaela I. Hegglin

preclude those changes being related to climate change impacts that may themselves be correlated with ENSO changes. Several other modes of natural variability, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, Arctic Oscillation, southern annular mode, quasi-biennial oscillation, Pacific decadal oscillation, and Madden–Julian oscillation, may also be associated with changes in the upper-tropospheric jets on decadal or longer time scales (e.g., Thompson et al. 2000 , 2011 ; Overland and Wang 2005 ; Woollings

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Lawrence Coy, Paul A. Newman, Steven Pawson, and Leslie R. Lait

-biennial oscillation . J. Atmos. Sci. , 25 , 1095 – 1107 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1968)025<1095:ATOTQB>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1968)025<1095:ATOTQB>2.0.CO;2 Manney , G. L. , and Z. D. Lawrence , 2016 : The major stratospheric final warming in 2016: Dispersal of vortex air and termination of Arctic chemical ozone loss . Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 16 , 15 371 – 15 396 , doi: 10.5194/acp-16-15371-2016 . 10.5194/acp-16-15371-2016 Molod , A. , L. Takacs , M. Suarez , and J. Bacmeister , 2015

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Krzysztof Wargan, Gordon Labow, Stacey Frith, Steven Pawson, Nathaniel Livesey, and Gary Partyka

parameterization affects the stratosphere, in particular resulting in a realistic quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) generated by the model in the absence of observations ( Coy et al. 2016 ). Other changes include upgrades to moist physics and the enforcement of dry mass conservation in the assimilation ( Takacs et al. 2016 ). The model updates are described in detail in Molod et al. (2015) . The observing system was expanded to include more recent satellite data: the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding

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Ronald Gelaro, Will McCarty, Max J. Suárez, Ricardo Todling, Andrea Molod, Lawrence Takacs, Cynthia A. Randles, Anton Darmenov, Michael G. Bosilovich, Rolf Reichle, Krzysztof Wargan, Lawrence Coy, Richard Cullather, Clara Draper, Santha Akella, Virginie Buchard, Austin Conaty, Arlindo M. da Silva, Wei Gu, Gi-Kong Kim, Randal Koster, Robert Lucchesi, Dagmar Merkova, Jon Eric Nielsen, Gary Partyka, Steven Pawson, William Putman, Michele Rienecker, Siegfried D. Schubert, Meta Sienkiewicz, and Bin Zhao

surface pressure observation Pibal Pilot balloon PIREP Pilot report QBO Quasi-biennial oscillation Raob Radiosonde observation RAS Relaxed Arakawa–Schubert convection scheme RMS Root-mean-square RSS Remote Sensing Systems SBUV Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Radiometer SEVIRI Spinning Enhanced Visible Infrared Imager SHEBA Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean SIC Sea ice concentration SMAP Soil Moisture Active Passive satellite SMOS Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity satellite SNPP Suomi National Polar

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C. A. Randles, A. M. da Silva, V. Buchard, P. R. Colarco, A. Darmenov, R. Govindaraju, A. Smirnov, B. Holben, R. Ferrare, J. Hair, Y. Shinozuka, and C. J. Flynn

their effort in establishing and maintaining these essential ground- and ship-based networks. We also thank all SEAC 4 RS and DISCOVER-AQ PIs, participants, and funding organizations that made these campaigns possible. Finally, we thank the three reviewers who provided useful feedback that helped to improve this manuscript. REFERENCES Aquila , V. , C. I. Garfinkel , P. Newman , L. Oman , and D. Waugh , 2014 : Modifications of the quasi-biennial oscillation by a geoengineering

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