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Stephen D. Griffiths and W. Richard Peltier

1. Introduction Tides occur throughout the oceans as periodic oscillations in currents and sea surface height, typically with diurnal or semidiurnal time scales. The amplitude of the surface oscillations is about 50 cm over much of the open ocean and about 1 m along many coastlines, but local resonances can lead to tides of over 5 m in special coastal locations (e.g., Garrett 1972 ; Arbic et al. 2007 ). However, tidal amplitudes are sensitive to the frequency of the lunar and solar forcing (i

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Marc d’Orgeville and W. Richard Peltier

1. Introduction In the North Pacific basin, low-frequency variability in sea surface temperature (SST) has been observed to be characterized by a decadal time scale. Commonly referred to as the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO; Mantua et al. 1997 ), the spatial pattern of this mode has a characteristic “horseshoe” shape, with opposite signs between the extremum in the western and central Pacific and that localized to the eastern rim of the basin. Its time evolution displays characteristic

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Guido Vettoretti, Marc d’Orgeville, William R. Peltier, and Marek Stastna

suggested that the runoff event that led to YD cooling entered the Arctic Ocean via the Mackenzie River route to the north ( Tarasov and Peltier 2005 ). It has been demonstrated that the impact of Arctic freshening is essentially identical to the impact of Atlantic freshening in so far as the impact on the AMOC is concerned ( Peltier et al. 2006 ; Peltier 2007 ). While there is evidence for a reduction in the strength of AMOC at Last Glacial Maximum of approximately 40% of the Holocene (or modern

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A. E. Viau and K. Gajewski

this paper, we quantify Holocene paleoclimates across northern Canada between 50° and 70°N, encompassing the boreal and low Arctic regions. Through this determination of regional-scale patterns of climate variability we can provide a context for global warming. To accomplish this, we use a network of fossil pollen records that has the advantage of reducing the temporal and spatial uncertainties associated with site-specific uncertainties. The data were extracted from the North American Pollen

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Michael S. Pritchard, Andrew B. G. Bush, and Shawn J. Marshall

and the Labrador Sea during three simultaneous NAO and ENSO episodes. Atmos.–Ocean , 34 , 313 – 343 . Newman , M. , G. P. Compo , and M. A. Alexander , 2003 : ENSO-forced variability of the Pacific decadal oscillation. J. Climate , 16 , 3853 – 3857 . Otto-Bliesner , B. L. , S. J. Marshall , J. T. Overpeck , G. H. Miller , and A. Hu , 2006 : Simulating Arctic climate warmth and ice field retreat in the last interglaciation. Science , 311 , 1751 – 1753

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Marc d’Orgeville and W. Richard Peltier

1. Introduction In the North Atlantic basin, a coherent basin-wide pattern of variability in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) has been identified with a period of 60–80 yr ( Schlesinger and Ramankutty 1994 ). With an amplitude on the order of ½°C, this Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) has been linked to changes in North American rainfall and river flow, to Sahel drought, to ENSO intensity, to the modulation of hurricanes, and to North Pacific SST variability ( Rowell et al. 1995

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M. Eby, K. Zickfeld, A. Montenegro, D. Archer, K. J. Meissner, and A. J. Weaver

uptake in the eastern subtropical Pacific. The simulated patterns of DIC and alkalinity show good agreement with observations ( Figs. 3 , 4 ). The model captures well the surface to deep gradient of both tracers. At depth the model slightly underestimates carbon while slightly overestimating alkalinity. See Table 3 for a summary of the average values and absolute errors of simulated DIC and alkalinity for the global, Arctic–Atlantic, and Indo-Pacific oceans. The simulated patterns of CaCO 3 are

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Garry K. C. Clarke, Andrew B. G. Bush, and John W. M. Bush

smoothed to reduce Gibbs oscillations associated with the finite truncation numbers (e.g., Navarra et al. 1994 ). The ocean model is the Princeton Modular Ocean Model (MOM 2; Pacanowski 1995 ) and has a resolution of 3.75° in longitude, 2.0° in latitude, 15 unevenly spaced vertical levels, and a rigid lid. The physical configuration (in terms of grids and resolution) is identical to the GFDL_R30 model analyzed in Stouffer et al. (2006) . However, the diffusive mixing scheme ( Stouffer et al. 2006

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