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Lei Song and Renguang Wu

( Watanabe 2004 ; Takaya and Nakamura 2005a , b ; Song et al. 2016 ; Song and Wu 2017 ). The Arctic Oscillation (AO) ( Thompson and Wallace 1998 , 2000 ) can induce cold events over East Asia through the modification of the Siberian high, the tropospheric Rossby wave train, and the polar front jet ( Gong et al. 2001 ; Wu and Wang 2002 ; Jeong and Ho 2005 ; Park et al. 2010 ; Park et al. 2011 ). Both positive and negative phases of the AO may be followed by cold events over eastern China on

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Kevin E. Trenberth and Yongxin Zhang

MHTs. In particular, we computed zonal mean global, Indo-Pacific, and Atlantic basin ocean MHTs as 12-month running mean time series and for the mean annual cycle for 2000 to 2016 as a function of latitude for the first time. In Trenberth et al. (2019) zonal mean MHTs were produced for the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans combined, the Indo-Pacific Ocean, and the global oceans. Accordingly, the large heat losses over the Arctic Ocean are replenished by northward ocean heat transports in the Atlantic

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D. Argüeso, R. Romero, and V. Homar

the diurnal cycle. In addition, the MC is a major convective area where strong interactions across scales take place. For example, the presence of the archipelago directly affects and modulates the Madden–Julian oscillation ( Peatman et al. 2013 ; Birch et al. 2016 ; Vincent and Lane 2018 ; Tan et al. 2018 ), and deep convection in the region is linked to El Niño–Southern Oscillation through the ascending branch of the Walker circulation ( Hendon 2003 ; Qian et al. 2010 ). Therefore

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Shijian Hu, Ying Zhang, Ming Feng, Yan Du, Janet Sprintall, Fan Wang, Dunxin Hu, Qiang Xie, and Fei Chai

( Nyadjro and Subrahmanyam 2016 ). Salinity and barrier-layer thickness in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean show energetic subseasonal variation related to the Madden–Julian oscillations ( Drushka et al. 2014 ; Li et al. 2015 ). In the northern Indian Ocean, interannual variability of the Wyrtki jet and Bay of Bengal circulation exerts significant influence on salinity anomalies through freshwater exchange between the Bay of Bengal and the rest of the equatorial Indian Ocean that may be influenced

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