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Thomas Jung and Peter B. Rhines

. Strong negative zonal pressure-drag values, corresponding to an easterly force on the atmosphere, prevailed in December 2004, whereas close to neutral anomalies are found during March 2005. The above-mentioned spectral characteristics are consistent with the results of Egger and Hoinka (2006) . The NAO index, and the related Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Northern Hemisphere annular mode (NAM) all correspond to wide-spectrum (in time) variability of the storm track and mean wintertime Icelandic low

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Michael J. Ring and R. Alan Plumb

ATM-0314094. REFERENCES Baldwin , M. P. , and T. J. Dunkerton , 1999 : Propagation of the Arctic Oscillation from the stratosphere to the troposphere. J. Geophys. Res. , 104 , 30937 – 30946 . Baldwin , M. P. , and T. J. Dunkerton , 2001 : Stratospheric harbingers of anomalous weather regimes. Science , 294 , 581 – 584 . Cash , B. A. , P. J. Kushner , and G. K. Vallis , 2002 : The structure and composition of the annular modes in an aquaplanet general circulation model

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Robert X. Black and Brent A. McDaniel

retracted and/or shifted northward toward the pole in comparison to the NAM. As a consequence, the near-surface anomaly patterns identified in BMR do not correspond very well to the Arctic Oscillation (the surface manifestation of the NAM). Thus, from a synoptic perspective, SFW events have important distinctions from SSW events. Another interesting aspect of the tropospheric response to SFW events found by BMR is that the tropospheric annular evolution is comprised of two distinct deceleration

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M. L. R. Liberato, J. M. Castanheira, L. de la Torre, C. C. DaCamara, and L. Gimeno

observed in composites of the displacement-type SSW events. Acknowledgments Dr. Laura de La Torre appreciates the grant she received from the University of Vigo to visit the University of Aveiro. REFERENCES Andrews , D. G. , J. R. Holton , and C. B. Leovy , 1987 : Middle Atmosphere Dynamics . Academic Press, 489 pp . Baldwin , M. P. , and T. J. Dunkerton , 1999 : Propagation of the Arctic Oscillation from the stratosphere to the troposphere. J. Geophys. Res. , 104 , 30937 – 30946

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Francis Codron

). REFERENCES Ambaum , M. H. P. , B. J. Hoskins , and D. B. Stephenson , 2001 : Arctic oscillation or North Atlantic oscillation? J. Climate , 14 , 3495 – 3507 . Arblaster , J. M. , and G. A. Meehl , 2006 : Contributions of external forcings to southern annular mode trends. J. Climate , 19 , 2896 – 2905 . Bals-Elsholz , T. , E. Atallah , L. F. Bosart , T. A. Wasula , M. J. Cempa , and A. R. Lupo , 2001 : The wintertime Southern Hemisphere split jet: Structure

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Cegeon J. Chan, R. Alan Plumb, and Ivana Cerovecki

, 1998 : The Arctic Oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height fields. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 25 , 1297 – 1300 . Thompson , D. W. J. , and J. M. Wallace , 2000 : Annular modes in the extratropical circulation. Part I: Month-to-month variability. J. Climate , 13 , 1000 – 1016 . Williams , G. P. , 1978 : Planetary circulations: 1. Barotropic representation of Jovian and terrestrial turbulence. J. Atmos. Sci. , 35 , 1399 – 1426 . Williams , G. P. , 2003 : Jovian

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P. B. Rhines

above the mountain. The North Atlantic storm track exhibits episodically large cyclonic development in the lee of Greenland, which reaches high into the Arctic Basin ( Jung and Rhines 2007 ). The laboratory model is rich with nongeostrophic motions. Nonhydrostatic inertial waves are generated in shear zones and trapped by them; a cyclonic shear zone in homogeneous fluid is a potential well that can trap near-inertial waves (because locally the effective value of f is increased, allowing trapped

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O. Martius, C. Schwierz, and H. C. Davies

understanding of low-frequency phenomena such as atmospheric blocks (e.g., De Pondeca et al. 1998 ) and the North Atlantic Oscillation ( Benedict et al. 2004 ). Important milestones in the history of the concept were the experiments by Simmons and Hoskins (1978 , 1980 ), who applied different settings of barotropic meridional shear in idealized experiments. They identified a cyclonic life cycle that develops in model runs where a cyclonic horizontal shear anomaly is superimposed on a zonally symmetric

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I. G. Watterson

, and D. B. Stephenson , 2001 : Arctic Oscillation or North Atlantic Oscillation? J. Climate , 14 , 3495 – 3507 . Baldwin , M. P. , D. B. Stephenson , D. W. J. Thompson , T. J. Dunkerton , A. J. Charlton , and A. O’Neill , 2003 : Stratospheric memory and skill of extended-range weather forecasts. Science , 301 , 636 – 640 . Cai , W. , and I. G. Watterson , 2002 : Modes of interannual variability of the Southern Hemisphere circulation simulated by the CSIRO

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John Marshall, David Ferreira, J-M. Campin, and Daniel Enderton

circulation on an aquaplanet ocean–atmosphere general circulation model. J. Climate , 19 , 4719 – 4737 . Thompson , D. W. J. , and J. M. Wallace , 1998 : The Arctic Oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 25 , 1297 – 1300 . Watterson , I. G. , 2000 : Southern midlatitude zonal wind vacillation and its interaction with the ocean in GCM simulations. J. Climate , 13 , 562 – 578 . Winton , M. , 2000 : A reformulated

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