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Kathryn A. Kelly, R. Justin Small, R. M. Samelson, Bo Qiu, Terrence M. Joyce, Young-Oh Kwon, and Meghan F. Cronin

with a lag of 1–2 yr, suggesting predictability in the transfer of heat to the atmosphere ( Kwon and Deser 2007 ). These two WBC systems have similar dynamical and thermodynamical roles in the ocean but may differ somewhat in their air–sea interactions. The GS and KE have different orientations, as well as different geography with respect to nearby land. The two WBCs are part of very different larger circulations: the GS is the warm northward branch of the Atlantic meridional overturning

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Mototaka Nakamura and Shozo Yamane

surface, whose thermal inertia is much smaller than that of the ocean or thick ice, can have a nonnegligible impact on the atmosphere because of its temperature contrast with the ocean and also by modulating the surface heat flux of the atmosphere over the land. The presence of the Japanese islands, whose counterparts are absent in the western North Atlantic, can complicate the interactions between the atmosphere and oceans in the western North Pacific region. While the extratropical SSTAs over a

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Shoshiro Minobe, Masato Miyashita, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Hiroki Tokinaga, and Shang-Ping Xie

atmosphere (e.g., Czaja and Frankignoul 2002 ; Ciasto and Thompson 2004 ; Watanabe et al. 2006 ). Observational studies, however, suffered from the short length of available data, insufficient to determine the contribution of ocean-to-atmosphere influences, which can be masked by energetic atmosphere-to-ocean influences. Numerical studies of atmospheric responses to midlatitude SST anomalies, on the other hand, showed diverse results, probably because the effects of eddy–mean flow interactions induced

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Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Shoshiro Minobe, and Shang-Ping Xie

) is an interesting tool for studying SST frontal effects on the atmosphere. Finally, the interaction between the ocean and atmosphere through the local atmospheric response to the SST front is an interesting topic. Xue et al. (2000) and Hogg et al. (2009) report that ocean currents can be affected by local atmosphere–ocean coupling using idealized atmospheric boundary layer–ocean coupled models. The cumulus convection response reaching the tropopause proposed in the present paper may affect

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Haiming Xu, Hiroki Tokinaga, and Shang-Ping Xie

observed by a suite of satellite-borne microwave sensors including altimeters, the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI), and the Quick Scatterometer (QuickSCAT). These microwave sensors see through clouds and offer a view of ocean–atmosphere interactions in unprecedented detail ( Wentz et al. 2000 ; Nonaka and Xie 2003 ; Chelton et al. 2004 ; Xie 2004 ). The present note examines atmospheric influences of the Kuroshio LM event of 2004–05, taking advantage of these satellite

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Jeffrey Shaman, R. M. Samelson, and Eric Skyllingstad

mode water along the Gulf Stream outcrop each winter is a potentially important source of seasonal-to-interannual memory within the climate system. Mode waters possessing temperature and salinity characteristics set during one winter may interact with and influence atmospheric conditions during the next, or a later, winter ( Alexander and Deser 1995 ). The ocean–atmosphere interactions associated with the wintertime mode water outcrop in the North Atlantic have been examined at a range of time

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James F. Booth, Lu Anne Thompson, Jérôme Patoux, Kathryn A. Kelly, and Suzanne Dickinson

averaged surface baroclinicity fields in the Gulf Stream region are accompanied by anomalies in the mean fields of the atmosphere up to 50 hPa. Their compositing results suggest that some of the atmospheric anomalies are partially caused by the position or meridional heat transport of the Gulf Stream. Near the surface, the SST can have a large impact on the surface winds through interaction with the atmospheric boundary layer (for a review, see Small et al. 2008 ). Nonaka and Xie (2003) show that

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Bunmei Taguchi, Hisashi Nakamura, Masami Nonaka, and Shang-Ping Xie

clouds in winter tend to develop on the warmer flank of the KE reaching into the midtroposphere. Nevertheless, the extent to which the extratropical ocean–atmosphere interaction contributes to shaping the North Pacific climate and causing its decadal variability has not been fully understood, due to the lack of consensus on how the atmosphere responds to extratropical SST anomalies ( Kushnir et al. 2002 ). Among studies that discussed the large-scale atmospheric influence of finescale oceanic fronts

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Terrence M. Joyce, Young-Oh Kwon, and Lisan Yu

. , and N. Sennéchael , 2007 : Observed influence of North Pacific SST anomalies on the atmospheric circulation. J. Climate , 20 , 592 – 606 . Frankignoul , C. , G. de Coëtlogon , T. M. Joyce , and S. Dong , 2001 : Gulf Stream variability and ocean–atmosphere interactions. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 31 , 3516 – 3529 . Fuglister , F. C. , 1955 : Alternate analyses of current surveys. Deep-Sea Res. , 2 , 213 – 229 . Garrett , C. , and B. Petrie , 1981 : Dynamical aspects

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Masami Nonaka, Hisashi Nakamura, Bunmei Taguchi, Nobumasa Komori, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, and Koutarou Takaya

by the Grant-in-Aid 21540458 by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. REFERENCES Alexander , M. A. , 1992 : Midlatitude atmosphere–ocean interaction during El Niño. Part I: The North Pacific Ocean. J. Climate , 5 , 944 – 958 . Alexander , M. A. , I. Blade , M. Newman , J. R. Lanzante , N. C. Lau , and J. D. Scott , 2002 : The atmospheric bridge: The influence of ENSO teleconnections on air–sea interaction over the global oceans. J. Climate , 15 , 2205 – 2231

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