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Gabriele Villarini, David A. Lavers, Enrico Scoccimarro, Ming Zhao, Michael F. Wehner, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Thomas R. Knutson, and Kevin A. Reed

TC rainfall structure and magnitude in six TC genesis basins under three warming scenarios: 1) a doubling of CO 2 in the atmosphere with no change in SST, 2) a uniform 2-K rise in global SST, and 3) a doubling of CO 2 plus a uniform 2-K rise in SST. The expectation prior to performing the analyses is for a decrease in TC rainfall under the CO 2 doubling experiment and for an increase associated with the global increase in SST. It is more difficult to know a priori what to expect from a

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Malcolm J. Roberts, Pier Luigi Vidale, Matthew S. Mizielinski, Marie-Estelle Demory, Reinhard Schiemann, Jane Strachan, Kevin Hodges, Ray Bell, and Joanne Camp

for Global Environmental Risk (UPSCALE) project ran the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM), using a forced atmosphere–land configuration named Global Atmosphere 3.0 (GA3.0; Walters et al. 2011 ), on the Cray XE6 supercomputer Hermit at the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS) in Stuttgart, Germany. Using a hierarchy of models with midlatitude resolutions of N96 (130 km), N216 (60 km), and N512 (25 km) with consistent physics and dynamics settings, our goal was to investigate the

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Christina M. Patricola, R. Saravanan, and Ping Chang

; Servain et al. 1999 ), which characterizes interannual to decadal variations in the cross-equatorial gradient between Northern and Southern Hemisphere tropical Atlantic SST. Both the AMO and AMM encompass the Atlantic main development region; in addition, the AMO includes the remote subtropical and midlatitude North Atlantic, while the AMM includes the remote southern tropical Atlantic. The AMM is a coupled ocean–atmosphere mode that can be generated by external forcings such as ENSO and the North

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Hiroyuki Murakami, Pang-Chi Hsu, Osamu Arakawa, and Tim Li

1. Introduction The effects of anthropogenic warming on tropical cyclone (TC) activity are critical for estimating the future costs of climate-related socioeconomic impacts. Recently, many studies have attempted to address future changes in TC activity using high-resolution atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) (e.g., Zhao et al. 2009 ; Bender et al. 2010 ; Murakami et al. 2012b ; Knutson et al. 2013 ), atmosphere–ocean coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) (e.g., Yokoi et al

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