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  • Atmosphere-land interactions x
  • Global Drought Information System - Drought Characterization, Occurrence, Driving Mechanisms, and Predictability Worldwide (GDIS Worldwide) x
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Omar V. Müller, Ernesto Hugo Berbery, Domingo Alcaraz-Segura, and Michael B. Ek

-cover types and the consequent inadequate simulation of the land–atmosphere interactions. Vast areas are suffering from human-induced changes in land cover, with deforestation and land clearing for agriculture and cattle ranching being the most important ones ( Dros 2004 ; Paruelo et al. 2005 ). This study explores the use of a consistent set of annually varying biophysical properties of vegetation derived from satellite data as a replacement of the conventional land-cover types for southern South

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Belen Rodríguez-Fonseca, Elsa Mohino, Carlos R. Mechoso, Cyril Caminade, Michela Biasutti, Marco Gaetani, J. Garcia-Serrano, Edward K. Vizy, Kerry Cook, Yongkang Xue, Irene Polo, Teresa Losada, Leonard Druyan, Bernard Fontaine, Juergen Bader, Francisco J. Doblas-Reyes, Lisa Goddard, Serge Janicot, Alberto Arribas, William Lau, Andrew Colman, M. Vellinga, David P. Rowell, Fred Kucharski, and Aurore Voldoire

the results of several studies ( Folland et al. 1986 ; Palmer 1986 ; Rowell et al. 1992 ; Ward 1998 ; Camberlin et al. 2001 ; Giannini et al. 2003 ; Lu and Delworth 2005 ; Cook 2008 ; Caminade and Terray 2010 ; Losada et al. 2010 ; Rodríguez-Fonseca et al. 2011 ; Mohino et al. 2011a ; Rowell 2013 ; Nicholson 2013 ). Other studies have addressed the effects of land–atmosphere interactions ( Xue, 1997 ; Zeng et al. 1999 ; Nicholson 2000 ; Giannini et al. 2003 ; Yoshioka et al. 2007

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Siegfried D. Schubert, Ronald E. Stewart, Hailan Wang, Mathew Barlow, Ernesto H. Berbery, Wenju Cai, Martin P. Hoerling, Krishna K. Kanikicharla, Randal D. Koster, Bradfield Lyon, Annarita Mariotti, Carlos R. Mechoso, Omar V. Müller, Belen Rodriguez-Fonseca, Richard Seager, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Lixia Zhang, and Tianjun Zhou

warm tropical North Atlantic can help define the shape and intensity of the drought episodes ( Seager et al. 2010 ; Mo and Berbery 2011 ). Notably, the effect of land surface–atmosphere interactions, in the form of soil moisture–precipitation coupling, is essential in the development of drought in southern South America ( Xue et al. 2006 ; Wang et al. 2007 ; Ma et al. 2010 ; Sörensson and Menéndez 2011 ). Barreiro and Diaz (2011) noted that improved seasonal forecasts over South America

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Richard Seager and Martin Hoerling

exploited to provide seasonal forecasts of drought onset, evolution, and termination. In contrast, aspects of droughts determined by internal atmospheric variability will be unpredictable beyond the weather prediction time scale. In addition to the potential of SST variability, internal atmosphere processes, and land–atmosphere interaction to cause droughts, we must also address the possibility that human-induced climate change is now impacting North American hydroclimate and the frequency and character

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Siegfried D. Schubert, Hailan Wang, Randal D. Koster, Max J. Suarez, and Pavel Ya. Groisman

, although it is still unclear which plays the more important role. The interactions involved are indeed complex; precipitation deficits can be caused by decreases in cloudiness, and a dry land surface can suppress evapotranspiration and thus inhibit local cloud formation. All said, it seems reasonable to pay significant attention to the atmospheric factors affecting dry weather (at least for heat waves), such as the cyclones and anticyclones that control cloud cover over most of the northern

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Mathew Barlow, Benjamin Zaitchik, Shlomit Paz, Emily Black, Jason Evans, and Andrew Hoell

within the low pressure area there is subsidence to within 1 km of the surface and then ascent below that ( Blake et al. 1983 ). However, the interaction of orography with remote dynamic forcing may contribute more to the center of the low pressure system over southern Pakistan and northwestern India than does direct sensible heating from the surface ( Bollasina and Nigam 2011 ). During summer, a low-level jet forms over the Persian Gulf, with orography, mountain slope, and land–sea breeze playing a

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Lixia Zhang and Tianjun Zhou

reproduction of interannual EASM pattern depends highly on the Indian Ocean–western Pacific anticyclone teleconnection. This provides lights to the prediction of droughts in the East Asian monsoon area. Dynamic seasonal forecasting systems based on coupled atmosphere–ocean–land general circulation models (CGCMs) have been widely used for drought prediction in recent years ( Luo and Wood 2007 ; Dutra et al. 2013 ; Yuan and Wood 2013 ). Kang et al. (2004) showed that extratropical precipitation is less

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