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Binayak P. Mohanty and Jianting Zhu

-based lookup tables and/or point-scale pedotransfer functions to estimate soil hydraulic properties is one of the weakest links in current National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) land surface modeling efforts (C. D. Peters-Lidard 2005, personal communication). From land–atmosphere interaction perspective with model grid/pixel scale ranging from hundreds of meters to several kilometers, soil hydraulic properties’ variability may include overlapping small to large (nested) spatial structures due

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Richard G. Lawford, John Roads, Dennis P. Lettenmaier, and Phillip Arkin

. It is also a critical contributor to the global water cycle through its removal of water from the atmosphere and to the global energy cycle through its latent heat release. Land–atmosphere interactions on different scales, which are discussed in the second section of this special issue, determine the surface component of water and energy budgets over land surfaces, influence the predictability of precipitation, and affect the contributions of land use practices to global change. For example, the

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Song Yang, S-H. Yoo, R. Yang, K. E. Mitchell, H. van den Dool, and R. W. Higgins

about the multiscale effects of land–atmosphere interaction remain unclear, for example, what are the impacts of the high-frequency variability of soil moisture on the low-frequency variations of precipitation, temperature, and atmospheric circulations? The above review concludes that soil moisture affects precipitation, temperature, and atmospheric circulation relatively simultaneously via its effect associated with surface energy balance, and less concurrently through its memory effect. These

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J. Li, X. Gao, and S. Sorooshian

1. Introduction Investigating river basin water cycles in the western U.S. mountainous region poses great challenges for the hydrology community because the region’s multiscale terrain leads to complex atmosphere–land surface interactions and makes it difficult to produce accurate observations. However, over the western United States, especially in the southwest semiarid region, the limited supply and increasing demand for water resources require accurate estimates of regional and local

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Ana M. B. Nunes and John O. Roads

.S. Air Force ( Mesinger et al. 2006 ). R-2 also had higher nonclosure term, especially over the western United States ( Fig. 8a ), mainly because the land surface model was substantially corrected by a soil moisture adjustment based on the difference between observed and model precipitation ( Lu et al. 2005 ). c. PA impact on the surface energy budget terms Betts et al. (1996) pointed out that many climate features rely on the land surface–atmosphere physical process interactions. In this

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Xi Chen, Yongqin David Chen, and Zhicai Zhang

water transfer among the atmosphere, watershed surface, soil column, and groundwater aquifers has provided hydrologists many challenges in understanding and evaluating the dynamic interactions of these reservoirs ( National Research Council 2004 ). Scientists and engineers in different disciplines often focus on certain parts of the hydrological system and treat other water balance components in a more simplified manner. In engineering and earth science investigations there has been a long tradition

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Guoxiong Wu, Yimin Liu, Qiong Zhang, Anmin Duan, Tongmei Wang, Rijin Wan, Xin Liu, Weiping Li, Zaizhi Wang, and Xiaoyun Liang

) reanalysis datasets provided other important data sources for the relevant study. In addition, the progress of the development of the Global Ocean–Atmosphere–Land System climate model (GOALS) ( Wu et al. 1997b ; Zhang et al. 2000 ) at the National Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG) made numerical experiments available. Great efforts have been made to understand the mechanism concerning how the TP forcing, either mechanical or thermodynamic

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Jinwon Kim and Hyun-Suk Kang

. The low-level winds and the associated moisture fluxes upstream of the Sierra Nevada and precipitation over the mountain range simulated in the selected cases of contrasting Fr are discussed in sections 3 , 4 , and 5 , respectively. Summary and conclusions follow in section 6 . 2. Experimental design a. Model description The Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation (MAS) model ( Soong and Kim 1996 ; Kim 2005 ; Kim et al. 2006 ) coupled with the Noah land surface scheme ( Kim and Ek 1995 ; Chang et

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