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Liao-Fan Lin, Ardeshir M. Ebtehaj, Alejandro N. Flores, Satish Bastola, and Rafael L. Bras

the Great Plains and exhibits strong land–atmosphere interaction ( Koster et al. 2004 , 2006 ). The grid spacing for the domain is 36 km. The top pressure level is set at 50 hPa, with 40 layers below. The WRF Model physics used in this study include the WRF single-moment 6-class microphysics scheme ( Hong and Lim 2006 ), the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model longwave radiation scheme ( Mlawer et al. 1997 ), the Dudhia shortwave radiation scheme ( Dudhia 1989 ), the revised MM5 similarity land

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Sara Q. Zhang, T. Matsui, S. Cheung, M. Zupanski, and C. Peters-Lidard

Applications, version 2 (MERRA2; Gelaro et al. 2017 ). The NASA Land Information System (LIS) ( Peters-Lidard et al. 2007 ) provides observation-corrected land surface conditions. Because remote-sensed passive microwave measurements respond directly to scattering optical properties of precipitating particles in the atmosphere, rather than to surface precipitation amounts, the microphysics in the model is a crucial component for the application of radiance-based precipitation and cloud data assimilation

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Stephen E. Lang and Wei-Kuo Tao

1. Introduction Latent heat release within the atmosphere arises from heat exchanges as water changes phase between vapor, liquid, and solid and is an important component or principal driver for many atmospheric circulations. Even at midlatitudes, latent heating (LH) can be an important part of midlatitude cyclone dynamics and the larger-scale storm track ( Willison et al. 2013 ) and can be especially important for the rapid deepening of such storms ( Whitaker and Davis 1994 ; Pirret et al

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Zeinab Takbiri, Ardeshir Ebtehaj, Efi Foufoula-Georgiou, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, and F. Joseph Turk

/scattering signals of the surface and the atmosphere at 13 frequency channels ranging from 10 to 183 GHz. On the one hand, observations by the DPR and the GMI high-frequency channels (>80 GHz) provide information about the microwave signature of precipitation and more specifically about snowfall ice scattering. On the other hand, observations by the low-frequency channels (>80 GHz) add information about the land surface characteristics that leads to improved detection skill by the presented algorithm. This study

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Clément Guilloteau, Efi Foufoula-Georgiou, Christian D. Kummerow, and Veljko Petković

measured radiances are the product of the interaction of surface-emitted radiation with water vapor, liquid, and solid hydrometeors in the atmosphere. The radiances are converted into brightness temperatures (TBs) for physical interpretation. The 183-GHz channels are primarily sensitive to water vapor absorption and ice scattering. While channels between 80 and 170 GHz are also most sensitive to ice scattering, channels between 10 and 40 GHz are most sensitive to emission by liquid raindrops (and by

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Veljko Petković, Christian D. Kummerow, David L. Randel, Jeffrey R. Pierce, and John K. Kodros

concentrations over land, while perhaps suppressing the warm rain processes, act to invigorate the ice phase processes as reported by various authors (e.g., Twomey 1977 ; Andreae et al. 2004 ; Storer et al. 2010 ; DeMott et al. 2011 ; Rosenfeld et al. 2013 ), with a recent study by Lin et al. (2016) listing relevant research on aerosol interaction with continental precipitation and modeled sensitivities based on field campaign measurements. To effectively use environmental parameters and understand

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W.-K. Tao, T. Iguchi, and S. Lang

mainly from evaporation prevails beneath the melting level. Therefore, Tao et al. (1993) proposed a LH algorithm known as the CSH algorithm. It used a simple LUT consisting of rain-normalized Q 1 profiles for the convective and stratiform region composited for land and ocean from sounding budgets and a few GCE simulations. The CSH algorithm’s performance was tested through self-consistency checking using GCE-simulated cloud heating data as “truth” ( Tao et al. 2000 ), and the algorithm was used to

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