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E. P. Nowottnick, P. R. Colarco, S. A. Braun, D. O. Barahona, A. da Silva, D. L. Hlavka, M. J. McGill, and J. R. Spackman

(GEOS-5), atmospheric general circulation model and data assimilation system. In a series of high-spatial-resolution GEOS-5 simulations, we initialize from the meteorological analysis state and simulate Nadine without any aerosol–atmosphere interaction, with only direct (aerosol–radiation) interaction (i.e., absorption and scattering) with the atmosphere, and with both direct and indirect (i.e., aerosol–cloud interaction) interaction using a two-moment cloud microphysics scheme that has recently

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Zhining Tao, Scott A. Braun, Jainn J. Shi, Mian Chin, Dongchul Kim, Toshihisa Matsui, and Christa D. Peters-Lidard

system modeling system coupled with the WRF-Chem Model (version 3.5.1) that represents atmospheric chemistry, aerosol, cloud, precipitation, and land processes at convection-permitting spatial scales (typically 1–6 km). In this way, NU-WRF can be applied for fully coupled aerosol–microphysics–radiation interaction simulations. The detailed model structure, chemistry/aerosol representation, and applications can be found in Tao et al. (2013 , 2015 , 2016 ), Shi et al. (2014) , and Peters-Lidard et

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Alan Brammer, Chris D. Thorncroft, and Jason P. Dunion

of 300 km), and the surrounding (300–750-km annulus) 850-hPa specific humidity also highlights this evolution ( Fig. 2 ). The time series shows that the AEW trough was associated with a significant diurnal cycle in precipitation while over the land, exhibiting consistent evening peaks for the period from 28 August to 3 September with only one exception on the evening of 31 August. Low-level circulation and environmental humidity during this continental stage of the AEW life cycle remained

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Jonathan Zawislak, Haiyan Jiang, George R. Alvey III, Edward J. Zipser, Robert F. Rogers, Jun A. Zhang, and Stephanie N. Stevenson

symmetric and asymmetric components. The symmetric processes focus on the cooperative interaction between the primary and secondary circulations, and the impact of symmetric diabatic heating on this interaction ( Ooyama 1969 , 1982 ; Schubert and Hack 1982 ; Nolan and Grasso 2003 ; Nolan et al. 2007 ). Asymmetric mechanisms can assume a variety of scales and causal factors. These factors include environmental vertical wind shear (e.g., Reasor et al. 2009 ; Molinari and Vollaro 2010 ; Reasor and

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