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Di Wu, Christa Peters-Lidard, Wei-Kuo Tao, and Walter Petersen

; Peters-Lidard et al. 2007 ). The infrastructure can not only be directly coupled with the atmosphere, but it can also integrate high-resolution observations with the model forecasts to generate improved estimates of land surface conditions such as soil moisture, evaporation, snowpack, and runoff at 1-km and finer spatial resolutions and at 1-h and finer temporal resolutions. During the IFloodS campaign period, two sets of 48-h NU-WRF forecasts were produced twice a day initialized at 0000 and 1200

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Young-Hee Ryu, James A. Smith, Mary Lynn Baeck, Luciana K. Cunha, Elie Bou-Zeid, and Witold Krajewski

forcings for multiple simulations over the innermost domain (d03). To examine the role of low-level moisture that can be greatly influenced by land surface processes, in the finest domain, we conduct two simulations: one is the control simulation and the other is a simulation in which the latent heat from the surface into the atmosphere is not considered (NO LE simulation). In the land surface model, the latent heat exchange (and also the other components of surface energy budget) between the surface

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Andrea Thorstensen, Phu Nguyen, Kuolin Hsu, and Soroosh Sorooshian

models (LSMs) has become an area of great interest. Some of these models are physically based, with a realistically meaningful structure of soil layers. Such models include the Noah land surface model ( Chen et al. 1996 ) and the Soil–Water–Atmosphere–Plant (SWAP) model ( van Dam et al. 1997 ). Others feature a more conceptual representation of soil layers in the rainfall–runoff generation process, such as the Variable Infiltration Capacity model (VIC; Wood et al. 1992 ), NOAA/National Weather

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