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Toshi Matsui, Jiun-Dar Chern, Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Masaki Satoh, Tempei Hashino, and Takuji Kubota

063261 . McFarquhar, G. M. , and List R. , 1991 : The raindrop mean free path and collision rate dependence on rainrate for three-peak equilibrium and Marshall–Palmer distributions . J. Atmos. Sci. , 48 , 1999 – 2003 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1991)048<1999:TRMFPA>2.0.CO;2 . Mohr, K. I. , Tao W.-K. , Chern J.-D. , Kumar S. V. , and Peters-Lidard C. , 2013 : The NASA-Goddard Multi-scale Modeling Framework–Land Information System: Global land/atmosphere interaction with resolved

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Ali Behrangi, Bin Guan, Paul J. Neiman, Mathias Schreier, and Bjorn Lambrigtsen

( Ferraro et al. 2000 ; Weng et al. 2003 ; Vila et al. 2007 ) employs a technique ( Kongoli et al. 2003 ; H. Meng et al. 2012, meeting presentation) through which a combination of MW sounding channels is used to distinguish between the scattering features over land surfaces (especially snow cover) and that of the atmosphere (precipitation-sized ice particles). However, a long-standing difficulty remains in dry atmospheres (e.g., total water vapor column of less than 10–15 mm), where even the 183-GHz

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Chris Kidd, Toshihisa Matsui, Jiundar Chern, Karen Mohr, Chris Kummerow, and Dave Randel

copies of explicit cloud-resolving model simulations replace ill-posed parameterization of subgrid convection and cloud processes in GEOS-4. This hybrid structure of the climate model enables a more realistic representation of convection without using ill-posed convective parameterization, improving many cloud-related features, such as the diurnal cycle of precipitation ( Tao et al. 2009 ), land–atmosphere interactions ( Mohr et al. 2013 ), and distributions of ice water content (Chern et al. 2015

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Mark S. Kulie, Lisa Milani, Norman B. Wood, Samantha A. Tushaus, Ralf Bennartz, and Tristan S. L’Ecuyer

’Ecuyer 2011 ; Lebsock et al. 2011 ; Rapp et al. 2013 ). CloudSat ’s ability to detect shallow snowfall has been highlighted in recent studies. Liu (2008) indicated both oceanic and land shallow snowfall modes when analyzing dominant mean reflectivity profiles associated with CloudSat -indicated snowfall events [e.g., see Fig. 11 in Liu (2008) ]. Liu (2008) also noted intense snowfall rates associated with shallow radar reflectivity profiles and suggested lake-effect snow as the most likely

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