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Feimin Zhang and Zhaoxia Pu

: A one-dimensional simulation of the interaction between land surface processes and the atmosphere . Bound.-Layer Meteor. , 59 , 1 – 34 , https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00120684 . 10.1007/BF00120684 Skamarock , W. C. , and Coauthors , 2008 : A description of the Advanced Research WRF version 3. NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-475+STR, 113 pp., https://doi.org/10.5065/D68S4MVH . 10.5065/D68S4MVH Steeneveld , G. J. , R. J. Ronda , and A. A. M. Holtslag , 2015 : The challenge of forecasting the

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Robert S. Arthur, Katherine A. Lundquist, Jeffrey D. Mirocha, and Fotini K. Chow

WRF, version 3.6.1) is modified to include topographic effects on radiation, expanding on the implementation of Lundquist et al. (2010) . Changes to the model are validated by confirming agreement in radiation and land surface fluxes, as well as temperature and velocity fields, between WRF-IBM and standard WRF when the same initialization and forcing conditions are applied. The validation is performed in a domain with an idealized two-dimensional valley that is forced by incoming solar radiation

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Jeffrey D. Massey, W. James Steenburgh, Sebastian W. Hoch, and Jason C. Knievel

forecast improvements with decreased horizontal grid spacing over finescale intermountain orography during the 2002 Olympic Winter Games . Wea. Forecasting , 20 , 558 – 576 , doi: 10.1175/WAF865.1 . Holt , T. R. , D. Niyogi , F. Chen , K. Manning , M. A. LeMone , and A. Qureshi , 2006 : Effect of land–atmosphere interactions on the IHOP 24–25 May 2002 convection case . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 134 , 113 – 133 , doi: 10.1175/MWR3057.1 . Holtslag , A. A. M. , and Coauthors , 2013

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Hailing Zhang, Zhaoxia Pu, and Xuebo Zhang

1. Introduction The near-surface atmosphere, namely, the bottom 10% of the atmospheric boundary layer, is unique due to its direct interaction with the earth's surface ( Stull 1988 ). For instance, near-surface temperature is characterized by diurnal variation, with a maximum at local afternoon and a minimum at local midnight. This is very different from the free atmosphere in which temperature shows little diurnal variation. Turbulence causes the wind field in the atmospheric boundary layer

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H. J. S. Fernando, E. R. Pardyjak, S. Di Sabatino, F. K. Chow, S. F. J. De Wekker, S. W. Hoch, J. Hacker, J. C. Pace, T. Pratt, Z. Pu, W. J. Steenburgh, C. D. Whiteman, Y. Wang, D. Zajic, B. Balsley, R. Dimitrova, G. D. Emmitt, C. W. Higgins, J. C. R. Hunt, J. C. Knievel, D. Lawrence, Y. Liu, D. F. Nadeau, E. Kit, B. W. Blomquist, P. Conry, R. S. Coppersmith, E. Creegan, M. Felton, A. Grachev, N. Gunawardena, C. Hang, C. M. Hocut, G. Huynh, M. E. Jeglum, D. Jensen, V. Kulandaivelu, M. Lehner, L. S. Leo, D. Liberzon, J. D. Massey, K. McEnerney, S. Pal, T. Price, M. Sghiatti, Z. Silver, M. Thompson, H. Zhang, and T. Zsedrovits

polarized radiation caused by environmental changes ( Pratt et al. 2014 ). This instrument measured surface moisture at approximately 1-km scale (i.e., mesoscale grid resolution). For both campaigns, a RF-crosshairs system was deployed at the IOS-Gap. Manual soil moisture observations were also conducted at IOS-Playa during the spring campaign to characterize soil moisture spatial variability and its role on the energy balance and land–atmosphere moisture exchange (Hang et al. 2015, manuscript submitted

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Jeffrey D. Massey, W. James Steenburgh, Jason C. Knievel, and William Y. Y. Cheng

finescale intermountain orography during the 2002 Olympic Winter Games . Wea. Forecasting , 20 , 558 – 576 , doi: 10.1175/WAF865.1 . Holt, T. R. , Niyogi D. , Chen F. , Manning K. , LeMone M. A. , and Qureshi A. , 2006 : Effect of land–atmosphere interactions on the IHOP 24–25 May 2002 convection case . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 134 , 113 – 133 , doi: 10.1175/MWR3057.1 . Hong, S. Y. , Noh Y. , and Dudhia J. , 2006 : A new vertical diffusion package with an explicit treatment of

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Matthew E. Jeglum, Sebastian W. Hoch, Derek D. Jensen, Reneta Dimitrova, and Zachariah Silver

. 1993 ), convection ( Stull 1976 ), or by the interaction of flow with terrain such as a mountain barrier ( Brown et al. 2003 ; Epifanio 2003 ). Additionally, CAPs can be displaced by their interaction with slope or valley flows ( Yoshino 1984 ; Mahrt et al. 2010 ; Burns and Chemel 2015 ). When a stably stratified flow encounters a terrain barrier, four distinct three-dimensional flow regimes can develop ( Epifanio 2003 ): 1) small-amplitude waves, 2) wave breaking, 3) upstream stagnation and

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Sean M. Wile, Joshua P. Hacker, and Kenneth H. Chilcoat

1. Introduction Fog events in the Salt Lake basin in Utah, with impacts on aviation operations at the Salt Lake City International Airport (KSLC), arise in a range of flow scenarios. Typically, weak synoptic forcing and nonlinear water phase changes present challenges to numerical weather prediction (NWP) models when fog is possible. Because interactions between the land–water surface and the lower atmosphere can strongly modulate fog production and dissipation, near-surface shelter and

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