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Kyle F. Itterly and Patrick C. Taylor

simulation of clouds and precipitation over the Indian Ocean, which can directly impact the simulation of the MJO and can further have global impacts through teleconnections ( Neale and Slingo 2003 ; Slingo et al. 2003 ). Missing propagating convection additionally removes the observed land–ocean interactions that are critical to the energy budget in this region. The unrealistic characterization of the convection, furthermore, changes the distribution of convective heating of the atmosphere over the

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Mark Decker, Michael A. Brunke, Zhuo Wang, Koichi Sakaguchi, Xubin Zeng, and Michael G. Bosilovich

chosen because it provides a large independent body of observations. Such critical evaluations are helpful to researchers who will use these reanalysis products for land–atmosphere interaction studies. They will also help guide the efforts in combining various reanalysis products and in situ data to obtain the best available near-surface atmospheric forcing data for land surface modeling. 2. Datasets a. In situ observations The in situ measurements for this study include 33 flux tower locations taken

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Man-Li C. Wu, Oreste Reale, and Siegfried D. Schubert

maxima: one corresponding to the WACT region and the other at about 40°W. This is the same pattern that was shown in Fig. 1 from the υ 700 obtained from the 6–9-day bandpass filter. In addition, a smaller local maximum seen at about 20°N over land appears to be stronger at lower levels (as will be shown later in the vertical cross sections) and may result from the interaction of moisture during active/inactive phases of the monsoon (e.g., Cornforth et al. 2009 ). It is also worth remembering

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Franklin R. Robertson, Michael G. Bosilovich, Junye Chen, and Timothy L. Miller

global amount over this period, similar to the older ERA-40 reanalysis. In contrast, the EC-Interim reanalysis exhibits a decrease in rainfall of about 0.3 mm day −1 since 1990. Clearly, there are remaining issues, not only with model physics inadequacies but also their interactions with constraining datasets whose bias properties are varied and time dependent in nature. Bosilovich et al. (2011) have presented a comparative summary of MERRA fluxes with those of other recent reanalyses and also

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Michele M. Rienecker, Max J. Suarez, Ronald Gelaro, Ricardo Todling, Julio Bacmeister, Emily Liu, Michael G. Bosilovich, Siegfried D. Schubert, Lawrence Takacs, Gi-Kong Kim, Stephen Bloom, Junye Chen, Douglas Collins, Austin Conaty, Arlindo da Silva, Wei Gu, Joanna Joiner, Randal D. Koster, Robert Lucchesi, Andrea Molod, Tommy Owens, Steven Pawson, Philip Pegion, Christopher R. Redder, Rolf Reichle, Franklin R. Robertson, Albert G. Ruddick, Meta Sienkiewicz, and Jack Woollen

flooding events; and R. I. Cullather and M. G. Bosilovich (2011, unpublished manuscript) and Cullather and Bosilovich (2011) evaluate MERRA surface fields in the polar regions. Reichle et al. (2011, manuscript submitted to J. Climate, hereafter referred to as R2011) evaluates MERRA land surface hydrological fields in offline tests and introduces a supplemental and improved set of fields. Yi et al. (2011) and Decker et al. (2011, manuscript submitted to J. Climate ) evaluate surface

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Brian E. Mapes and Julio T. Bacmeister

1. Introduction There are many ways to learn from the confrontation of an atmosphere model with observations, in service of model improvement. The study of initial tendencies [or errors in one-time-step forecasts, Klinker and Sardeshmukh (1992) ] is appealing because the effect of a model process error is localized. However, initialization shock may dominate the results, making interpretation subtle (e.g., Judd et al. 2008 ). At the other extreme of time scale, the biases of unconstrained

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Man-Li C. Wu, Oreste Reale, Siegfried D. Schubert, Max J. Suarez, and Chris D. Thorncroft

on the Hilbert–Huang transform ( Huang et al. 1998 , 1999 ) are used to separate purely tropical frequencies from modes that may represent some evidence of tropical–extratropical interaction. The article is a follow-up of a previous study ( Wu et al. 2009a , hereafter WA09 ) on the AEJ structure and on the mechanisms contributing to its maintenance. In WA09 the current understanding of the AEJ structure was discussed as perceived through state-of-the-art reanalyses produced by operational

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Behnjamin J. Zib, Xiquan Dong, Baike Xi, and Aaron Kennedy

be random overlapped ( Xu and Randall, 1996 ). A more accurate system description and evaluation of R2 is documented in Kanamitsu et al. (2002) . 3) 20CR reanalysis NOAA's 20CR dataset uses a new version of the NCEP atmosphere–land model along with an Ensemble Kalman Filter data assimilation technique ( Whitaker and Hamill 2002 ) that assimilates only surface pressure reports and observations while using observed the Hadley Centre Sea Ice and SST dataset (HadISST) sea surface temperatures and

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Michael A. Brunke, Zhuo Wang, Xubin Zeng, Michael Bosilovich, and Chung-Lin Shie

of NCEP reanalyses ( Saha et al. 2010 ). It uses the Climate Forecast System (CFS), a fully coupled atmosphere–ocean–sea ice–land model. The atmospheric component is run at a spectral resolution of T382 with 64 vertical layers with the addition of a cloud microphysics scheme to determine cloud condensate prognostically ( Zhao and Carr 1997 ; Sundqvist et al. 1989 ; Moorthi et al. 2001 ), the simplified Arakawa–Schubert cumulus convection scheme ( Pan and Wu 1995 ; Hong and Pan 1998 ), and

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J. Brent Roberts, Franklin R. Robertson, Carol A. Clayson, and Michael G. Bosilovich

incremental balance in the GSI 3DVAR analysis system . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 137 , 1046 – 1060 . Kraus , E. B. , and J. A. Businger , 1994 : Atmosphere-Ocean Interaction . Oxford University Press, 362 pp . Lock , A. P. , A. R. Brown , M. R. Bush , G. M. Martin , and R. N. B. Smith , 2000 : A new boundary layer mixing scheme. Part I: Scheme description and single-column model tests . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 128 , 3187 – 3199 . Louis , J. F. , 1979 : A parametric model of vertical eddy

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