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Natalie P. Thomas, Michael G. Bosilovich, Allison B. Marquardt Collow, Randal D. Koster, Siegfried D. Schubert, Amin Dezfuli, and Sarith P. Mahanama

et al. 2011 ; Wu et al. 2012 ; Teng et al. 2013 ; Kornhuber et al. 2019 ; Röthlisberger et al. 2019 ). Lehmann and Coumou (2015) reported a link between storm track activity and heat extremes. For daytime heat waves, land–atmosphere interactions are also highly relevant, as daytime heat leads to depletion of soil moisture and a subsequent reduction in evaporative cooling ( Fischer et al. 2007 ; Miralles et al. 2014 ). Thus, droughts and heat waves are often linked, although the strength of

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Laura M. Hinkelman

differences that exceed the EBAF uncertainties of Table 1 and the corresponding flux values are indicated by bold type. Uncertainties are not applied to land and ocean fluxes. “Trans.” = Transmittance. 1) Top of the atmosphere For both MERRA and MERRA-2, most TOA radiative flux terms agree to within about 3 W m −2 of EBAF under all-sky conditions. MERRA-2 incoming shortwave (SW) and outgoing longwave (LW) are slightly improved over MERRA. However, MERRA-2 has a substantially higher (~8%) planetary

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Franklin R. Robertson, Michael G. Bosilovich, and Jason B. Roberts

.1175/JHM-D-11-024.1 . Hastenrath , S. , and L. Greischar , 1993 : Circulation mechanisms related to northeast Brazil rainfall anomalies . J. Geophys. Res. , 98 , 5093 – 5102 , doi: 10.1029/92JD02646 . Hendon , H. H. , 2003 : Indonesian rainfall variability: Impacts of ENSO and local air–sea interaction . J. Climate , 16 , 1775 – 1790 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<1775:IRVIOE>2.0.CO;2 . Jiménez , C. , and Coauthors , 2011 : Global intercomparison of 12 land surface heat flux

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Ronald Gelaro, Will McCarty, Max J. Suárez, Ricardo Todling, Andrea Molod, Lawrence Takacs, Cynthia A. Randles, Anton Darmenov, Michael G. Bosilovich, Rolf Reichle, Krzysztof Wargan, Lawrence Coy, Richard Cullather, Clara Draper, Santha Akella, Virginie Buchard, Austin Conaty, Arlindo M. da Silva, Wei Gu, Gi-Kong Kim, Randal Koster, Robert Lucchesi, Dagmar Merkova, Jon Eric Nielsen, Gary Partyka, Steven Pawson, William Putman, Michele Rienecker, Siegfried D. Schubert, Meta Sienkiewicz, and Bin Zhao

estimates alone, reanalyses like MERRA-2 can provide detailed information on how the anthropogenic component of aerosols, and thus radiative forcing, has changed during the modern satellite era, as well as its interaction with the circulation and the climate at large. This should lead to reduced uncertainty in assessing, for example, the human impact on climate. More extensive analysis coupling between the atmosphere, ocean, land, and chemistry as envisioned for IESA, while progressing, still presents

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C. A. Randles, A. M. da Silva, V. Buchard, P. R. Colarco, A. Darmenov, R. Govindaraju, A. Smirnov, B. Holben, R. Ferrare, J. Hair, Y. Shinozuka, and C. J. Flynn

AERONET observations are excluded from MERRA-2 after 2014; also, observations from these sensors are not bias corrected. To derive 10-km resolution MODIS NNR AOD, over-ocean predictors include level-2 multichannel top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) reflectances, glint, solar and sensor angles, cloud fraction (pixels are discarded when cloud fraction > 70%), and albedo derived using GEOS-5 surface wind speeds. Over land, predictors are the same, except a climatological albedo is included for pixels with

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Allison B. Marquardt Collow and Mark A. Miller

et al. 2009 ; Parding et al. 2011 ; Miller et al. 2012 ; Collow et al. 2016a ). These studies have produced either heating rate profiles or “bulk” measurements of the net radiative heating of the column, using the vertical cross-atmosphere radiative flux divergence (RFD). The RFD is presented in watts per meter squared and is defined so that net fluxes at the surface and the top of the atmosphere (TOA) are a positive quantity when there is net radiation transfer into the column. This sign

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