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Enrique R. Vivoni, Hugo A. Gutiérrez-Jurado, Carlos A. Aragón, Luis A. Méndez-Barroso, Alex J. Rinehart, Robert L. Wyckoff, Julio C. Rodríguez, Christopher J. Watts, John D. Bolten, Venkataraman Lakshmi, and Thomas J. Jackson

). Despite its regional impact, relatively little is currently known about the potential interactions between the monsoon system and land surface properties (e.g., topography, soil moisture, vegetation) that may play a role in initiating and sustaining moist convection. The land and atmosphere interaction may be particularly important for topographically complex areas in the monsoon region. For example, Gochis et al. (2004) showed important terrain controls on the distribution of precipitation using

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Wayne Higgins and David Gochis

completed, a process that will take a number of years. This issue is organized to report upon several areas, including precipitation characteristics, circulation and transient observations/analyses, ocean observations/analyses, land–atmosphere interactions and hydrology, modeling studies, and societal applications; a brief synthesis of some of the key findings is given in section 4 . The set of papers is necessarily diverse to illustrate the scope of the program. 2. NAME timeline NAME planning began in

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Chunmei Zhu, Tereza Cavazos, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

rainfall is highly affected by interannual variations in the SST and in the location of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) in the eastern tropical Pacific. Cooler (warmer) than normal SST coexisted with the more northern (southern) position of ITCZ and more (less) monsoon rainfall in central-south Mexico. There are even fewer studies of the land surface feedback mechanisms over NW Mexico. Matsui et al. (2003) investigated the influence of land–atmosphere interactions on the variability of the

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Chunmei Zhu and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

extremity of the much more pronounced NAMS phenomenon over northwestern Mexico). A key to understanding this predictability is datasets that support analyses of land–atmosphere interactions. The dataset described in this paper arises from this motivation. To date, data that will support land–atmosphere feedback studies within the NAMS region, particularly land surface states and fluxes such as soil moisture and turbulent heat fluxes, have been essentially nonexistent. This is a result mostly of the

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Christopher J. Watts, Russell L. Scott, Jaime Garatuza-Payan, Julio C. Rodriguez, John H. Prueger, William P. Kustas, and Michael Douglas

) and suggests to us that seasonal changes in albedo for natural vegetation in the region are not very important in terms of regional land–atmosphere interactions. The net radiation only exhibits large changes at the DS+B sites. However, the satellite data show that the largest changes in LST occur at the tropical sites (TDF and STS) so that we would also expect to see significant changes there. Unfortunately, installation of the instruments at these sites was too late to obtain a good record of the

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Andrea J. Ray, Gregg M. Garfin, Margaret Wilder, Marcela Vásquez-León, Melanie Lenart, and Andrew C. Comrie

maintained by the NWS/WFO in Tucson, Arizona, tracks precipitation totals and other variables for several sites in the southern part of the state, with data comparing the current year to previous years, start dates, and educational material on the monsoon (information online at ). A major goal of the NAME program is to improve the simulation of monsoon variability in coupled (ocean–land–atmosphere) climate models in order to predict features of the

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Myong-In Lee, Siegfried D. Schubert, Max J. Suarez, Isaac M. Held, Arun Kumar, Thomas L. Bell, Jae-Kyung E. Schemm, Ngar-Cheung Lau, Jeffrey J. Ploshay, Hyun-Kyung Kim, and Soo-Hyun Yoo

1 atmospheric GCM. NASA/TM-2000-104505, Vol. 17, 194 pp . Bell , T. L. , and N. Reid , 1993 : Detection of the diurnal cycle of tropical rainfall from satellite observations. J. Appl. Meteor. , 32 , 311 – 322 . Betts , A. , J. H. Ball , A. C. M. Beljaars , M. J. Miller , and P. A. Viterbo , 1996 : The land surface–atmosphere interaction: A review based on observational and global modeling perspectives. J. Geophys. Res. , 101 , 7209 – 7225 . Carbone , R. E. , J. D

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X. Gao, J. Li, and S. Sorooshian

significantly improved the description and understanding of the NAM system. This includes identifying and clarifying spatially and temporally coherent relationships among the interactive physical variables of the ocean, atmosphere, and land surface. Among the most important diagnoses are the following: the NAM system’s synoptic- dynamic, and thermodynamic, mechanisms; including its circulation characteristics and their spatial and temporal variations ( Douglas et al. 1993 ; Adams and Comrie 1997 ; Barlow

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Mekonnen Gebremichael, Enrique R. Vivoni, Christopher J. Watts, and Julio C. Rodríguez

estimation of hydrologic responses and understanding of land–atmosphere interaction is the accuracy of rainfall data. Our results have therefore an implication for hydrologic responses to estimation accuracy. Finally, we note that our analysis has been based on data from two summer months during 2004. Incorporation of data from additional seasons, through ongoing network measurements, will help build confidence in the climatology of the rainfall characteristics discussed herein. Acknowledgments We would

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Timothy J. Lang, David A. Ahijevych, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Richard E. Carbone, Steven A. Rutledge, and Robert Cifelli

Atmospheric Research (NCAR) S-band dual-polarization Doppler radar (S-Pol), placed ∼100 km north of Mazatlán, Mexico, on the coast west of the SMO; and two Servício Meteorológico Nacional (SMN) Doppler radars—one at Guasave farther north on the coastal plain and one at Cabo San Lucas at the tip of the Baja California peninsula. A central goal of NAME is to characterize and understand convective and mesoscale processes in the complex terrain of the core monsoon region and their interaction within the

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