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Guido Vettoretti, Marc d’Orgeville, William R. Peltier, and Marek Stastna

Gent 1998 ) with improved tropical dynamics ( Otto-Bliesner and Brady 2001 ). It is a fully coupled global atmosphere–ocean–sea ice–land surface model without flux adjustments. The atmospheric component of the model is CCM3.6 (T31L18) with an equivalent grid spacing of 3.75° × 3.75° and 18 vertical levels ( Kiehl et al. 1998 ). The land surface model, LSM1, has specified vegetation types and a comprehensive treatment of surface processes ( Boville et al. 2001 ). The ocean model is the NCAR Ocean

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Michael S. Pritchard, Andrew B. G. Bush, and Shawn J. Marshall

accumulation in Asia during the mid-Holocene and at the Last Glacial Maximum. Global Planet. Change , 32 , 331 – 347 . Bush , A. B. G. , 2007 : Extratropical influence of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation through the late Quaternary. J. Climate , 20 , 788 – 800 . Bush , A. B. G. , and S. G. H. Philander , 1998 : The role of ocean-atmosphere interactions in tropical cooling during the last glacial maximum. Science , 279 , 1341 – 1344 . Bush , A. B. G. , and S. G. H. Philander , 1999

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Marc d’Orgeville and W. Richard Peltier

four interacting components—atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land surface—linked via a flux coupler. All of the simulations discussed in the following have been performed at T31 resolution for the atmospheric component (26 vertical levels and 3.75° horizontal resolution) and with a grid termed gx3v5 for the oceanic component (25 vertical levels, 3.6° resolution in the zonal direction and variable in the meridional direction with approximately 0.6° resolution near the equator). In gx3v5, because the

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Alex S. Gardner, Martin J. Sharp, Roy M. Koerner, Claude Labine, Sarah Boon, Shawn J. Marshall, David O. Burgess, and David Lewis

it often refers to the environmental lapse rate in a vertical profile of the atmosphere. Here we use lapse rate to refer to the decrease in near-surface temperature with elevation following the glacier surface. We define lapse rates to be positive when temperature decreases as elevation increases in order to be consistent with usage in the atmospheric science community. However, we note that most previously published glacier near-surface lapse rates have been given the reverse sign convention

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Marc d’Orgeville and W. Richard Peltier

2006 ; Kwon and Deser 2007 ). Recently, Zhong et al. (2007) have argued convincingly that the Pacific multidecadal variability in CCSM3 finds its origin exclusively in the midlatitudes. These “midlatitude theories” originated in the seminal studies of Latif and Barnett (1994 , 1996) , who suggested, mainly based on the results of numerical simulations, that the decadal variability in the North Pacific could be attributed to a cycle involving ocean–atmosphere interaction between the subtropical

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J. Paul Spence, Michael Eby, and Andrew J. Weaver

forcing, while excluding both the attributes and complications arising from flows through regions of complex bathymetry. The horizontal resolution of the land, atmosphere, and sea ice components are also increased in the same manner as the bathymetry. All experiments use the same values for vertical ocean mixing coefficients. The thermocline time scale required for adjustment to the perturbation induced upon switching resolution should be comparable to that for a first-mode Rossby wave to cross the

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Garry K. C. Clarke, Andrew B. G. Bush, and John W. M. Bush

. 2006 ; C. Hillaire-Marcel et al. 2008)? 4) Was there simply a flood but no change in overturning and no other oceanic change sufficient to produce a cold event? The aim of our modeling study is to explore the possibility that there was no substantial reorganization of the ocean circulation in response to the freshwater outburst but there was nevertheless a climate response that resulted from other changes in the ocean and atmosphere. 2. Freshwater forcing The megaflood from the Agassiz

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Stephen D. Griffiths and W. Richard Peltier

. , L. Padman , and G. D. Egbert , 1998 : Tides in the Weddell Sea. Ocean, Ice, and Atmosphere: Interactions at the Antarctic Continental Margin, S. S. Jacobs and R. F. Weiss, Eds., Antarctic Research Series, Vol. 75, Amer. Geophys. Union, 341–359 . Sakai , K. , and W. R. Peltier , 1998 : Deglaciation-induced climate variability: An explicit model of the glacial-interglacial transition that simulates both the Bolling/Allerod and Younger-Dryas events. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan , 76

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