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Peter Vogel, Peter Knippertz, Andreas H. Fink, Andreas Schlueter, and Tilmann Gneiting

temporal resolution. The TRMM 3B42 product is regarded to be one of the best available satellite precipitation estimates (e.g., Maggioni et al. 2016 ) and has been shown to represent daily and even subdaily rainfall over tropical Africa (e.g., Pfeifroth et al. 2015 ; Camberlin et al. 2019 ). There are, however, a number of known deficiencies ( Huffman et al. 2007 ). Over land, TRMM generally underestimates the frequency and amount of rain from warm clouds, typically found over coastal areas with

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Hilke S. Lentink, Christian M. Grams, Michael Riemer, and Sarah C. Jones

atmospheric variables can be traced along the pathway. LAGRANTO is applied offline on hourly COSMO output data on model levels. This has the advantage that trajectories can be calculated both forward and backward in time. 3. Synoptic overview Typhoon Sinlaku (2008) developed east of the Philippines and quickly strengthened to typhoon intensity before it made landfall on the northern side of Taiwan on 14 September ( Fig. 2 ). Because of the interaction with land and orography, Sinlaku weakened from a

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Andreas Schlueter, Andreas H. Fink, Peter Knippertz, and Peter Vogel

1. Introduction Rainfall variability substantially affects societies in northern tropical Africa ( Sultan et al. 2005 ). More than 96% of cultivated land in sub-Saharan Africa is rain-fed ( FAO 2016 ). Despite this, major operational global weather prediction models still fail to deliver skillful short-range precipitation forecasts over this region ( Vogel et al. 2018 ). This corroborates the need for an improved understanding of the underlying processes involved in the generation of

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Tobias Selz, Lucas Fischer, and George C. Craig

interactions of dynamics and moisture in the atmosphere are not fully understood, the observations of power-law scaling allow for a reality check of NWP models and GCMs concerning water vapor variability ( Kahn et al. 2011 ). While this is not a traditional validation measure, a model’s ability to reproduce the observed scale dependence behavior provides a statistical measure of the accuracy of its moist dynamics and physics ( Skamarock 2004 ). In other words, if a model does not reproduce the real

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Volkmar Wirth, Michael Riemer, Edmund K. M. Chang, and Olivia Martius

interactions Although theory provides some guidance, the question remains what makes a jet a good waveguide in the real atmosphere. The issue can be addressed by experimentation with numerical models. It turns out that the ducting property of a jet waveguide in a climate model depends on the strength of the jet stream ( Branstator 2002 ). This result was later corroborated by idealized simulations with a barotropic model, indicating that a jet must be strong and, in particular, narrow in order to make it a

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Stephan Rasp, Tobias Selz, and George C. Craig

clouds. This could result from differences in the synoptic situation, orography, cloud–cloud interactions, or land surface variations leading to changes in the Bowen ratio, which was found to be important for the shallow cumulus mass flux distribution ( Sakradzija and Hohenegger 2017 ). On the domain scale, regions with different mean cloud sizes are included, potentially increasing the width of cloud mass flux distribution. b. Overall cloud mass flux distribution—The impact of cloud separation Next

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Andreas Schäfler, George Craig, Heini Wernli, Philippe Arbogast, James D. Doyle, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, John Methven, Gwendal Rivière, Felix Ament, Maxi Boettcher, Martina Bramberger, Quitterie Cazenave, Richard Cotton, Susanne Crewell, Julien Delanoë, Andreas Dörnbrack, André Ehrlich, Florian Ewald, Andreas Fix, Christian M. Grams, Suzanne L. Gray, Hans Grob, Silke Groß, Martin Hagen, Ben Harvey, Lutz Hirsch, Marek Jacob, Tobias Kölling, Heike Konow, Christian Lemmerz, Oliver Lux, Linus Magnusson, Bernhard Mayer, Mario Mech, Richard Moore, Jacques Pelon, Julian Quinting, Stephan Rahm, Markus Rapp, Marc Rautenhaus, Oliver Reitebuch, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Harald Sodemann, Thomas Spengler, Geraint Vaughan, Manfred Wendisch, Martin Wirth, Benjamin Witschas, Kevin Wolf, and Tobias Zinner

on quantifying model errors and predictability, and in particular on investigating the role of diabatic processes such as those related to clouds and radiation, whose interaction with the dynamics of the flow must be understood and represented more accurately in models in order to further improve forecast quality. Detailed observations are needed to characterize the weather systems and embedded physical processes across a range of spatial and temporal scales that encompass cloud microphysical

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Kirstin Kober and George C. Craig

of moisture and temperature in the atmosphere determines the amount of CAPE and is influenced by several processes, especially in the atmospheric boundary layer. Soil type, land use, orography, and elevation are important because they define properties of the interaction between the land surface and the atmosphere. Several processes contribute to create variability in a convective boundary layer. The heating of surfaces with different heat conduction properties by the sun causes turbulent eddies

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