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Richard Harding, Martin Best, Eleanor Blyth, Stefan Hagemann, Pavel Kabat, Lena M. Tallaksen, Tanya Warnaars, David Wiberg, Graham P. Weedon, Henny van Lanen, Fulco Ludwig, and Ingjerd Haddeland

for ecosystem and human services ( Bates et al. 2008 ; Strzepek and Boehlert 2010 ; Ward et al. 2010 ; Vörösmarty et al. 2010 ). As a result, in many regions water (particularly groundwater) is being exploited in an unsustainable way, leading to long-term declines in groundwater levels ( McGuire 2009 ; Rodell et al. 2009 ). Strong interactions between the climate, hydrology, and land use occur ( Claussen 2004 ; Falloon and Betts 2010 ). The snow–climate feedback is well known and described (e

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Ingjerd Haddeland, Douglas B. Clark, Wietse Franssen, Fulco Ludwig, Frank Voß, Nigel W. Arnell, Nathalie Bertrand, Martin Best, Sonja Folwell, Dieter Gerten, Sandra Gomes, Simon N. Gosling, Stefan Hagemann, Naota Hanasaki, Richard Harding, Jens Heinke, Pavel Kabat, Sujan Koirala, Taikan Oki, Jan Polcher, Tobias Stacke, Pedro Viterbo, Graham P. Weedon, and Pat Yeh

. , 180 , 373 – 394 . Polcher, J. , and Coauthors , 2000 : GLASS: Global Land-Atmosphere System Study . GEWEX News, Vol. 10, No. 2, International GEWEX Project Office, Silver Spring, MD, 3–5 . Rost, S. , Gerten D. , Bondeau A. , Lucht W. , Rohwer J. , and Schaphoff S. , 2008 : Agricultural green and blue water consumption and its influence on the global water system . Water Resour. Res. , 44 , W09405 , doi:10.1029/2007WR006331 . Rudolf, B. , and Schneider U. , 2005

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Stefan Hagemann, Cui Chen, Jan O. Haerter, Jens Heinke, Dieter Gerten, and Claudio Piani

on the accuracy of the GCM data, especially of precipitation. An accurate representation of the exchange of water among the atmosphere, the ocean, the cryosphere, and the land surface is one of the biggest challenges in global climate modeling. Simulating these fluxes is extremely difficult because they depend on processes occurring on spatial scales that are generally several orders of magnitude smaller than the typical grid size in a GCM. The formation of precipitation, for example, is

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Philippe Lucas-Picher, Jens H. Christensen, Fahad Saeed, Pankaj Kumar, Shakeel Asharaf, Bodo Ahrens, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Daniela Jacob, and Stefan Hagemann

regional climate model COSMO-CLM . J. Geophys. Res. , 115 , D16101 , doi:10.1029/2009JD013497 . Douglas, E. M. , Beltràn-Przekurat A. , Niyogi D. S. , Pielke R. A. Sr. , and Vörösmarty C. J. , 2009 : The impact of agricultural intensification and irrigation on land–atmosphere interactions and Indian monsoon precipitation—A mesoscale modeling perspective . Global Planet. Change , 67 , 117 – 128 . Dümenil, L. , and Todini E. , 1992 : A rainfall–runoff scheme for use in the Hamburg

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Wai Kwok Wong, Stein Beldring, Torill Engen-Skaugen, Ingjerd Haddeland, and Hege Hisdal

; Milly and Dunne 2010 ), Beldring et al. (2006) showed that evapotranspiration changes from 1961–90 to 2071–2100 predicted by the HBV model using the temperature index approach do not differ significantly from latent heat flux changes predicted by the second version of the Rossby Center Atmospheric Model (RCA2) ( Bringfelt et al. 2001 ) for Norway. The RCA2 model calculates latent heat flux using the land surface scheme of the Interaction Soil–Biosphere–Atmosphere model ( Noilhan and Planton 1989

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