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D. J. Lea, I. Mirouze, M. J. Martin, R. R. King, A. Hines, D. Walters, and M. Thurlow

1. Introduction Forecasting systems for short-range weather and ocean prediction have been run separately at the Met Office for many years with the weather forecasts using prescribed ocean surface temperatures and sea ice fields, and with the ocean forecasts using atmospheric forcing fields from the Met Office’s numerical weather prediction (NWP) system. It has long been known that coupling between the various earth system components (the ocean, atmosphere, sea ice, and land) produces improved

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Hailing Zhang and Zhaoxia Pu

. , and W. M. Angevine , 2013 : Ensemble data assimilation to characterize land–atmosphere coupling errors in numerical weather prediction models . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 141 , 1804 – 1821 , doi: 10.1175/MWR-D-12-00280.1 . Hoffman , R. N. , and S. M. Leidner , 2005 : An introduction to the near-real-time QuikSCAT data . Wea. Forecasting , 20 , 476 – 493 , doi: 10.1175/WAF841.1 . Hong , S.-Y. , and J.-O. Lim , 2006 : The WRF single-moment 6-class microphysics scheme (WSM6) . J

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Jean-François Caron, Thomas Milewski, Mark Buehner, Luc Fillion, Mateusz Reszka, Stephen Macpherson, and Judy St-James

for further details on the model configuration used in the RDPS, especially regarding the parameterization of the physical processes. Both the LAM and the 33-km driving component use the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA) land surface scheme, which has its own data assimilation and cycling strategy [see Bélair et al. (2003a , b) for complete details]. In the 33-km driver, the surface variables from the GDPS at T − 6 h are used to initialize the DB forecast (see Fig. 2

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Mark Buehner, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, Alain Beaulne, Cécilien Charette, Louis Garand, Sylvain Heilliette, Ervig Lapalme, Stéphane Laroche, Stephen R. Macpherson, Josée Morneau, and Ayrton Zadra

. Part II: Cold season results . J. Hydrometeor. , 4 , 371 – 386 , doi: 10.1175/1525-7541(2003)4<371:OIOTIL>2.0.CO;2 . Bélair , S. , J. Mailhot , C. Girard , and P. Vaillancourt , 2005 : Boundary layer and shallow cumulus clouds in a medium-range forecast of a large-scale weather system . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 133 , 1938 – 1960 , doi: 10.1175/MWR2958.1 . Betts , A. K. , J. H. Ball , A. C. M. Beljaars , M. J. Miller , and P. A. Viterbo , 1996 : The land surface–atmosphere

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