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Marvin Xiang Ce Seow, Yushi Morioka, and Tomoki Tozuka

oceans, and those of land rain gauges and soundings ( Adler et al. 2003 ). Anomalies are calculated by removing the monthly climatologies, and the long-term linear trend is removed via a least squares fit in all observational and reanalysis data and model results. 3. Model and experiment design We use the version 2 of the Scale Interaction Experiment Frontier (SINTEX-F2) coupled model ( Masson et al. 2012 ). The atmospheric component is ECHAM 5.3, which has a horizontal resolution of T106 with 31

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Jieshun Zhu, Arun Kumar, and Wanqiu Wang

be related to a more realistic air–sea feedback simulated in RASmod than in SASmod. b. Model experiments Initialized from the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR; Saha et al. 2010 ) state on 1 January 1980, RASmod and SASmod were first integrated for 30 yr ( Zhu et al. 2017b ). After the 11th year of model simulation, restart files of the two free runs were saved daily for ocean (and sea ice) and every 12 h for atmosphere (and land). Based on these restart files, three sets of prediction

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Chu-Chun Chen, Min-Hui Lo, Eun-Soon Im, Jin-Yi Yu, Yu-Chiao Liang, Wei-Ting Chen, Iping Tang, Chia-Wei Lan, Ren-Jie Wu, and Rong-You Chien

, the reduced roughness alone may also increase surface pressure and subsidence through land–atmosphere interactions. Although the enhanced wind speed might mitigate this effect, the net effect is a decrease in evapotranspiration ( Maloney 1998 ). These two nonradiative processes contribute to changes in the water and energy budgets, resulting in a positive temperature response. Conversely, radiative processes reduce the net incoming radiation (through the increase in surface albedo) to produce a

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Wan-Ling Tseng, Huang-Hsiung Hsu, Noel Keenlyside, Chiung-Wen June Chang, Ben-Jei Tsuang, Chia-Ying Tu, and Li-Chiang Jiang

; Miura et al. 2007 ; Wu and Hsu 2009 ; Birch et al. 2016 ) and atmosphere–ocean coupling ( Zhu et al. 2010 ). The present study uses the newly developed ECHAM5-SIT model (described in section 2 ), one of the few GCMs that realistically simulate the MJO ( Tseng et al. 2015 ; Jiang et al. 2015 ), to address this unresolved concern. Three experiments are conducted to delineate the relative effects of land–sea contrast and orography in the MC on the MJO and address the following questions: 1) How

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Claire L. Vincent and Todd P. Lane

difficulty in modeling the interscale interactions between intraseasonal variability and diurnally forced mesoscale variability such as the sea-breeze circulation and mountain/valley winds. The diurnal cycle exerts a dominating influence on the MC. The diurnal precipitation cycle in the tropics is controlled by the response to radiative heating and the periodic organization of convection both onshore and offshore by mesoscale phenomena such as the sea-breeze circulation, land/valley breezes, and diurnal

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D. Argüeso, R. Romero, and V. Homar

heat and moisture, but also to a distinct interaction between microphysics and the deep convection scheme. Tests using a different microphysics scheme (Thompson) did not prove superior in terms of precipitation and showed a similar cloud structure (not shown). 4. Summary and discussion In this study, we quantified the effects of resolution and convective representation in simulating rainfall features and the vertical structure of the atmosphere in the Maritime Continent. In general, increasing

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Hironari Kanamori, Tomo’omi Kumagai, Hatsuki Fujinami, Tetsuya Hiyama, and Tetsuzo Yasunari

). Convective cloud systems over the MC release considerable latent heat that constitutes a major component of the atmospheric heat budget. In addition, thermal land–sea contrasts associated with the major islands in this warm ocean environment generate complex local circulations that play important roles in both the energy cycle and the hydrologic cycle of the MC ( Neale and Slingo 2003 ). Temporal variations in convection and precipitation exhibit pronounced diurnal and intraseasonal variabilities, and

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Chidong Zhang and Jian Ling

study. To fill the gaps, we propose that the following research topics be pursued to advance our understanding of the barrier effect of the MC: Interactions of convective systems over the sea and land of the MC under different large-scale condition: It is unknown how much of the MJO-C convection development over the sea is related to offshore propagation of convection initiated over land ( Houze et al. 1981 ; Mori et al. 2004 ; Keenan and Carbone 2008 ) and how much is initiated over the water

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Wei-Ting Chen, Shih-Pei Hsu, Yuan-Huai Tsai, and Chung-Hsiung Sui

envelope of MJO events as “building blocks” ( Nakazawa 1988 ; Majda et al. 2004 ; Mapes et al. 2006 ; Gottschalck et al. 2013 ) or become active as an independent mode ( Dunkerton and Crum 1995 ; Wheeler and Kiladis 1999 ). Significant ocean–atmosphere interactions can occur during the passage of the KWs ( Baranowski et al. 2016a ). The KWs can significantly modulate the tropical convection on synoptic scales (e.g., Takayabu 1991 ; Wheeler and Kiladis 1999 ; Wheeler et al. 2000 ; Wang and Fu

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Satoru Yokoi, Shuichi Mori, Masaki Katsumata, Biao Geng, Kazuaki Yasunaga, Fadli Syamsudin, Nurhayati, and Kunio Yoneyama

convection during nighttime. Warner et al. (2003) and Mapes et al. (2003b) proposed that an ascent motion in the lower troposphere, which was due to gravity waves emanating from the nighttime radiative cooling of the elevated terrain of the Andes, destabilized the offshore atmosphere west of the Pacific coast of Panama and Columbia. Love et al. (2011) and Hassim et al. (2016) suggested the role of gravity waves emanating from convective systems over land. While diabatic heating within convective

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