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Kyle Chudler, Weixin Xu, and Steven A. Rutledge

. They state that the afternoon convection over land is initiated by interactions between sea-breeze and mountain–valley circulations that are stronger during inactive periods when solar insolation is at a maximum. Furthermore, they concluded that offshore movement of afternoon convection is maximized in the transition period from inactive to active periods, and minimized during the transition from active to inactive periods. Offshore propagation of precipitating systems was attributed to gravity

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Wei-Ting Chen, Chien-Ming Wu, and Hsi-Yen Ma

, etc.) in the atmosphere, and facilitating model parameterization improvements. Initialized with the reanalysis (observation) data, the synoptic-scale circulation and atmospheric states remain close to the reanalysis (observations) in the first few days of the hindcasts, while the biases in precipitation and clouds are possibly the results of parameterization deficiencies ( Ma et al. 2013 , 2014 , 2015 ; Xie et al. 2012 ) or a strong local interaction between the parameterized physics and

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Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Eric D. Maloney, Benjamin A. Toms, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Susan C. van den Heever

of topography. Low-resolution simulations (12-km grid spacing) with parameterized convection only captured the eastward propagation of the MJO over the MC in the absence of topography. Other papers have shown that explicitly resolving topography with higher-resolution models leads to improved MJO characteristics (e.g., Rajendran et al. 2008 ; Liu et al. 2009 ). Though a similar weakening of BSISO convection or disruption to BSISO propagation through land and topography interaction has not

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Michael B. Natoli and Eric D. Maloney

) presented field observations that showed an extremely regular diurnal cycle over both land and ocean near Borneo. Across the MC region, differential daytime heating between land and water due to the difference in heat capacity leads to sea-breeze circulations that converge near the center of the islands, and combine with mountain–valley breezes to enhance convection over mountains ( Qian 2008 ). Cells begin to merge and organize, particularly over larger islands, leading to a late afternoon peak in

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Wei-Ting Chen, Shih-Pei Hsu, Yuan-Huai Tsai, and Chung-Hsiung Sui

envelope of MJO events as “building blocks” ( Nakazawa 1988 ; Majda et al. 2004 ; Mapes et al. 2006 ; Gottschalck et al. 2013 ) or become active as an independent mode ( Dunkerton and Crum 1995 ; Wheeler and Kiladis 1999 ). Significant ocean–atmosphere interactions can occur during the passage of the KWs ( Baranowski et al. 2016a ). The KWs can significantly modulate the tropical convection on synoptic scales (e.g., Takayabu 1991 ; Wheeler and Kiladis 1999 ; Wheeler et al. 2000 ; Wang and Fu

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Corinne B. Trott, Bulusu Subrahmanyam, Heather L. Roman-Stork, V. S. N. Murty, and C. Gnanaseelan

salinity products from SMOS, Aquarius, and SMAP . J. Geophys. Res. Oceans , 124 , 1932 – 1944 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JC014937 . 10.1029/2019JC014937 Behringer , D. W. , 2007 : The Global Ocean Data Assimilation System (GODAS) at NCEP. 11th Symp. on Integrated Observing and Assimilation Systems for the Atmosphere, Oceans, and Land Surface (IOAS-AOLS ). San Antonio, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 3.3., https://ams.confex.com/ams/87ANNUAL/techprogram/paper_119541.htm . Behringer , D. W. , and Y

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Benjamin A. Toms, Susan C. van den Heever, Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Eric D. Maloney

-scale interactions within the MJO. By permitting the direct representation of cloud formation, the environments within which clouds form can be analyzed according to the governing physics of the atmosphere, rather than via convective parameterizations as is typically the case in global circulation models ( Zhang and Mu 2005 ; Jiang et al. 2015 ; Moncrieff et al. 2012 ). We therefore simulate a boreal summer MJO event propagating over the Maritime Continent using a CRM to investigate whether any relationships

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