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Larry K. Berg and Peter J. Lamb

1. Setting the research agenda It is well known that the exchange of heat and moisture between the surface and atmosphere plays a key role in the earth’s climate system (e.g., Randall et al. 2007 ). Science questions related to land–atmosphere interactions have remained an active topic of research, both inside and outside of the ARM Program, for a considerable period of time (e.g., Betts et al. 1996 ; Betts 2003 , 2004 ; Dirmeyer et al. 2006 ; Betts 2009 ; Santanello et al. 2009 ; Betts

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Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Faisal Hossain, L. Ruby Leung, Nate McDowell, Matthew Rodell, Francisco J. Tapiador, F. Joe Turk, and Andrew Wood

review scoped appropriately for this American Meteorological Society (AMS) monograph and its readers, we provide greater focus on the theoretical underpinnings of surface processes, the atmosphere above, and the interactions within the land–atmosphere interface. During the last 100 years, we have seen a marked transition that has improved practical applications of hydrology through fundamental advancements in hydrologic science, including contributions to Earth system science ( Sivapalan 2018 ). As

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V. Ramaswamy, W. Collins, J. Haywood, J. Lean, N. Mahowald, G. Myhre, V. Naik, K. P. Shine, B. Soden, G. Stenchikov, and T. Storelvmo

parameterizations of these processes. It is increasingly apparent that solar radiative forcing initiates a continuous spectrum of coupled interactions throughout Earth’s land, ocean, and atmosphere on multiple time scales with different and interrelated regional dependencies. Differential heating of the land and oceans, equator and poles, and surface and atmosphere drive these responses; the processes involved are those by which climate responds to other radiative forcings, including by increasing greenhouse

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observations will be used to initialize and validate cloud-resolving models, and as a basis for comparing parameterizations. These improved parameterizations will be incorporated into a regional climate model of the Arctic and global climate models. Collaboration with other programs, such as the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA), the First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Experiment) Regional Experiment (FIRE), and Land-Atmosphere-Ice-Interactions (LAII) allows ARM to address

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David A. Randall, Cecilia M. Bitz, Gokhan Danabasoglu, A. Scott Denning, Peter R. Gent, Andrew Gettelman, Stephen M. Griffies, Peter Lynch, Hugh Morrison, Robert Pincus, and John Thuburn

and w refer to sensible and latent heat, respectively. [Redrawn from Bonan (2015) ; Ecological climatology: concepts and applications. © Gordan Bonan 2016. Reproduced with permission of The Licensor through PLSclear.] Simulation experiments revealed important modes of interaction between the vegetated land surface and the atmosphere that can affect climate. Charney (1975) showed that land clearing and overgrazing could lead to drought through a feedback between surface albedo and enhanced

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J. Verlinde, B. D. Zak, M. D. Shupe, M. D. Ivey, and K. Stamnes

Arctic land areas ( Chapman and Walsh 1993 ) but no, or perhaps even weak cooling, trends over the central Arctic ice pack ( Kahl et al. 1993 ). The ice pack results conflicted with general circulation model simulations ( Walsh 1993 ), which predicted warming trends in the central Arctic Ocean. These differences between observed and simulated trends suggested that high-latitude ocean–atmosphere–ice interactions were represented poorly in general circulation models ( Walsh and Crane 1992 ) and that

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T. N. Krishnamurti, Ruby Krishnamurti, Anu Simon, Aype Thomas, and Vinay Kumar

, 2003 : A mechanism of the Madden–Julian oscillation based on interactions in the frequency domain . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 129 , 2559 – 2590 , doi: 10.1256/qj.02.151 . Lau , K.-M. , and L. Peng , 1987 : Origin of the low-frequency (intraseasonal) oscillation in the tropical atmosphere. Part I: Basic theory . J. Atmos. Sci. , 44 , 950 – 972 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1987)044<0950:OOLFOI>2.0.CO;2 . Lin , J. , B. Mapes , M. Zhang , and M. Newman , 2004 : Stratiform

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Guoxiong Wu and Yimin Liu

and activate the India–Burma trough, resulting in the BOB summer monsoon onset. Case studies ( Wu et al. 2011 , 2012a ) demonstrate that the formation of the BOB monsoon onset vortex is a consequence of in situ air–sea interaction modulated by the land–sea thermal contrast in South Asia and TP forcing in spring, which can be interpreted schematically by Fig. 7-11 : in spring the dominant cold northwesterly over India that is induced by the TP forcing generates strong surface sensible heating and

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David A. R. Kristovich, Eugene Takle, George S. Young, and Ashish Sharma

experience coastal upwelling as seen in the Coastal Upwelling Experiment 2 ( Hawkins 1977 ). This vertical advection of cooler water from below enhances the diurnal land–sea temperature difference and thus intensifies forcing for sea-breeze circulations. Simulation of these effects with a simple coupled ocean atmosphere numerical model was soon undertaken ( Clancy et al. 1979 ). These simulations suggested the possibility of a two-way feedback between SST decreases due to coastal upwelling and the sea

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Chih-Pei Chang, Mong-Ming Lu, and Hock Lim

memory effect, atmosphere–ocean interaction is involved to warm the SST faster during boreal spring. One possibility is that in early spring the initially cool SST and more anticyclonic flow with weak winds cause less evaporation and more solar heating of the sea surface and downwelling in the upper ocean, so the spring SST becomes higher and the SLP becomes lower than in fall. But the land–sea redistribution of mass still contributes to lower SLP in the Bay of Bengal during boreal fall when compared

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