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Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Paul A. Dirmeyer, Craig R. Ferguson, Kirsten L. Findell, Ahmed B. Tawfik, Alexis Berg, Michael Ek, Pierre Gentine, Benoit P. Guillod, Chiel van Heerwaarden, Joshua Roundy, and Volker Wulfmeyer

Metrics derived by the LoCo working group have matured and begun to enter the mainstream, signaling the success of the GEWEX approach to foster grassroots participation. The role of land–atmosphere (L-A) interactions in weather and climate prediction has emerged over the last two decades as important but inherently challenging and complex. One reason is that L-A interaction research has proceeded “in reverse” compared to most science. Typically in Earth system sciences, observations inform

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Cenlin He, Olivia Clifton, Emmi Felker-Quinn, S. Ryan Fulgham, Julieta F. Juncosa Calahorrano, Danica Lombardozzi, Gemma Purser, Mj Riches, Rebecca Schwantes, Wenfu Tang, Benjamin Poulter, and Allison L. Steiner

–terrestrial ecosystems interactions? How does climate internal variability influence these interactions and feedbacks? How do human-induced changes in emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants, land use and land cover, fires, and meteorology alter these interactions and feedbacks? The recent Integrated Land Ecosystem–Atmosphere Processes Study (iLEAPS) early-career workshop held in Boulder, Colorado, during 16–17 October 2019 discussed current challenges and future directions for advancing process

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Brian J. Butterworth, Ankur R. Desai, Stefan Metzger, Philip A. Townsend, Mark D. Schwartz, Grant W. Petty, Matthias Mauder, Hannes Vogelmann, Christian G. Andresen, Travis J. Augustine, Timothy H. Bertram, William O. J. Brown, Michael Buban, Patricia Cleary, David J. Durden, Christopher R. Florian, Trevor J. Iglinski, Eric L. Kruger, Kathleen Lantz, Temple R. Lee, Tilden P. Meyers, James K. Mineau, Erik R. Olson, Steven P. Oncley, Sreenath Paleri, Rosalyn A. Pertzborn, Claire Pettersen, David M. Plummer, Laura D. Riihimaki, Eliceo Ruiz Guzman, Joseph Sedlar, Elizabeth N. Smith, Johannes Speidel, Paul C. Stoy, Matthias Sühring, Jonathan E. Thom, David D. Turner, Michael P. Vermeuel, Timothy J. Wagner, Zhien Wang, Luise Wanner, Loren D. White, James M. Wilczak, Daniel B. Wright, and Ting Zheng

Land–atmosphere exchanges of energy, water, and carbon influence weather and climate. The biological processes that mediate these exchanges with the atmosphere occur at multiple spatial and temporal scales, necessitating cross-scale observational platforms. Accurate accounting of land–atmosphere interactions is critical for improving the performance of numerical weather and climate models. Unfortunately, there is a persistent mismatch between the scales of observations and models. This scale

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T. J. Lyons, P. Schwerdtfeger, J. M. Hacker, I. J. Foster, R. C. G. Smith, and Huang Xinmei

Southwestern Australia, with a semiarid Mediterranean climate, has been extensively cleared of native vegetation for winter-growing agricultural species. The resultant reduction in evapotranspiration has increased land salinisation. Through detailed meteorological and vegetation measurements over both agricultural and native vegetation, the bunny fence experiment is addressing the impact on the climate of replacing native perennial vegetation with wintergrowing annual species. Such measurements will give a better understanding of the interaction between the land surface and the atmosphere and are important for improved parameterization of the boundary layer in climate models.

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Pedro A. Jimenez, Jordi Vila-Guerau de Arellano, Jorge Navarro, and J. Fidel Gonzalez-Rouco

There is an increasing awareness of land–atmosphere interactions (L-AI) in modulating local phenomena as well as weather and climate variability at regional scales. As a result, the increasing attention that L-AI processes are receiving nowadays is not surprising. Our understanding of the biophysical processes governing these interactions is still limited, thereby hampering improvement in model parameterizations and their influence at different spatial and temporal scales. LAND–ATMOSPHERE

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Margaret A. LeMone, Robert L. Grossman, Richard L. Coulter, Marvin L. Wesley, Gerard E. Klazura, Gregory S. PouIos, William Blumen, Julie K. Lundquist, Richard H. Cuenca, Shaun F. Kelly, Edward A. Brandes, Steven P. Oncley, Robert T. McMillen, and Bruce B. Hicks

This paper describes the development of the Cooperative Atmosphere Surface Exchange Study (CASES), its synergism with the development of the Atmosphere Boundary Layer Experiments (ABLE) and related efforts, CASES field programs, some early results, and future plans and opportunities. CASES is a grassroots multidisciplinary effort to study the interaction of the lower atmosphere with the land surface, the subsurface, and vegetation over timescales ranging from nearly instantaneous to years. CASES scientists developed a consensus that observations should be taken in a watershed between 50 and 100 km across; practical considerations led to an approach combining long-term data collection with episodic intensive field campaigns addressing specific objectives that should always include improvement of the design of the long-term instrumentation. In 1997, long-term measurements were initiated in the Walnut River Watershed east of Wichita, Kansas. Argonne National Laboratory started setting up the ABLE array. The first of the long-term hydrological enhancements was installed starting in May by the Hydrologic Science Team of Oregon State University. CASES-97, the first episodic field effort, was held during April–June to study the role of surface processes in the diurnal variation of the boundary layer, to test radar precipitation algorithms, and to define relevant scaling for precipitation and soil properties. The second episodic experiment, CASES-99, was conducted during October 1999, and focused on the stable boundary layer. Enhancements to both the atmospheric and hydrological arrays continue. The data from and information regarding both the long-term and episodic experiments are available on the World Wide Web. Scientists are invited to use the data and to consider the Walnut River Watershed for future field programs.

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C. R. Mechoso, R. Wood, R. Weller, C. S. Bretherton, A. D. Clarke, H. Coe, C. Fairall, J. T. Farrar, G. Feingold, R. Garreaud, C. Grados, J. McWilliams, S. P. de Szoeke, S. E. Yuter, and P. Zuidema

New focused measurements, analyses, and modeling of the southeast Pacific climate system are helping to improve our understanding of key atmospheric and oceanic processes and their interactions in the eastern tropical ocean regions. The Variability of American Monsoon Systems (VAMOS) 1 Ocean–Cloud–Atmosphere–Land Study (VOCALS) is an international research program focused upon improved understanding and modeling of the southeast Pacific (SEP) climate system on diurnal to interannual time

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Daniel R. Cheresnick and Jeffrey B. Basara
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Volker Wulfmeyer, David D. Turner, B. Baker, R. Banta, A. Behrendt, T. Bonin, W. A. Brewer, M. Buban, A. Choukulkar, E. Dumas, R. M. Hardesty, T. Heus, J. Ingwersen, D. Lange, T. R. Lee, S. Metzendorf, S. K. Muppa, T. Meyers, R. Newsom, M. Osman, S. Raasch, J. Santanello, C. Senff, F. Späth, T. Wagner, and T. Weckwerth

A novel synergy of scanning lidar systems as well as other in situ and remote sensing instruments provides accurate 3D measurements of numerous dynamical and thermodynamical quantities to evaluate and improve our understanding of land–atmosphere interactions. The L–A system includes the soil, the land cover such as vegetation, and the overlying atmo-sphere (see the appendix for a list of key acronyms used in this paper). The interaction of variables (e.g., related to the water and energy

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Xuhui Lee, Shoudong Liu, Wei Xiao, Wei Wang, Zhiqiu Gao, Chang Cao, Cheng Hu, Zhenghua Hu, Shuanghe Shen, Yongwei Wang, Xuefa Wen, Qitao Xiao, Jiaping Xu, Jinbiao Yang, and Mi Zhang

processes governing the lake–atmosphere interactions. Our study appears to represent the first lake EC network. Our goal is to quantify the lake–air fluxes of energy, momentum, and greenhouse gases across pollution and biological gradients in the lake. The data will be used to address five science questions: Are lake–air parameterizations established for deep lakes applicable to shallow lakes? Why are lake–land breeze circulations less prevalent in the Taihu lake basin than in lake basins in northern

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