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  • Atmosphere-land interactions x
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Kunio Yoneyama, Chidong Zhang, and Charles N. Long

studies on convection–circulation coupling of the MJO. The 2011–12 MJO field campaign provided observations that are unique in several aspects in comparison to previous tropical field campaigns that aimed at interactions between atmospheric convection and its large-scale environment and between the atmosphere and ocean. It is the only one in the tropical IO with continuous time series of atmospheric and upper-ocean profiles. It is the first time the entire cloud population ranging from shallow

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James N. Moum, Simon P. de Szoeke, William D. Smyth, James B. Edson, H. Langley DeWitt, Aurélie J. Moulin, Elizabeth J. Thompson, Christopher J. Zappa, Steven A. Rutledge, Richard H. Johnson, and Christopher W. Fairall

Observations from 1 km beneath to 25 km above the sea surface reveal the complex interactions in Indian Ocean westerly wind bursts associated with the Madden–Julian oscillation. The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 ) is a disturbance of the atmosphere over tropical oceans associated with surface westerly wind bursts, deep convection, and heavy precipitation. MJO convection typically initiates in the Indian Ocean, travels eastward at roughly 5 m s −1 along the

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