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Victor Zlotnicki, John Wahr, Ichiro Fukumori, and Yuhe T. Song

reviewing its random errors, some systematic errors, and the assumptions used when applying the data to ocean circulation problems. Water masses in the oceans, atmospheres, hydrologic basins, and ice sheets are constantly being redistributed. Time changes in the mass of a combined column of ocean and the atmosphere are reflected as time changes in ocean BP, and cause time changes in the gravity field. These very small changes in gravity can be accurately represented by changes in the mass per unit area

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Rui M. Ponte and Sergey V. Vinogradov

discovery of strong excitation of internal tides in the deep ocean associated with the interaction of the barotropic tide with topography ( Ray and Mitchum 1996 ). Such excitation implied a substantial dissipation of the barotropic tide, which had been missing in single-layer models ( Egbert and Ray 2000 ), and provided added incentive for the recent use of stratified global models of the tides ( Arbic et al. 2004 ; Simmons et al. 2004 ). In comparison with sea level observations, Arbic et al. (2004

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Serguei Sokolov and Stephen R. Rintoul

1. Introduction For geophysical flows of sufficient spatial scale, the meridional gradient of planetary vorticity (the β effect) provides a restoring force that helps to organize the flow into persistent, narrow zonal jets ( Rhines 1975 ). Well-known examples include the jets on Jupiter and the outer planets and the jet streams in the earth’s atmosphere. Oceanic flows also fall in a parameter range conducive to the formation of zonal jets, although the presence of land boundaries has been

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