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Hyodae Seo

, leading to the offshore deflection of SC at 10°N along the northern shoulder of the GW. This scale-to-scale interaction between the ocean and the atmosphere on a relatively narrow scale is important for the modeled GW position and the SC separation in comparison to the observations. The finescale SST gradients also produce anomalous Ekman upwelling (downwelling) in the northern edge of the GW (CF), which exerts an additional forcing of the GW and CF at the southerly position. If these SST effects are

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R. Justin Small, Frank O. Bryan, Stuart P. Bishop, and Robert A. Tomas

dynamical core ( Park et al. 2014 ), Parallel Ocean Program version 2 (POP2; Smith et al. 2010 ), Community Ice Code version 4 ( Hunke and Lipscomb 2008 ), Community Land Model version 4 ( Lawrence et al. 2011 ), and CESM Coupler 7 with the Large and Yeager (2009) air–sea flux routine. The highest-resolution simulation used here, with 0.25° resolution in the atmosphere and nominal 0.1° in the ocean, is described in full in Small et al. (2014) . It was run for 100 years under “present-day” (year 2000

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Hyodae Seo, Arthur J. Miller, and Joel R. Norris

1. Introduction Oceanic mesoscale eddies, with a typical length scale of 10–100 km in the midlatitudes and 1000 km in the tropics, have signatures both in sea surface temperature (SST) and surface currents. The eddies interact with the atmosphere through the SST and surface current influencing wind stress, the process referred to in the literature as eddy–wind interaction or mesoscale air–sea interaction. This is conveniently represented in the form of bulk parameterization of the wind stress

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Xiaohui Ma, Ping Chang, R. Saravanan, Raffaele Montuoro, Hisashi Nakamura, Dexing Wu, Xiaopei Lin, and Lixin Wu

1. Introduction It has been recognized for decades that for basin-scale air–sea interactions in midlatitudes, coupling between the atmosphere and ocean is largely linear and passive in nature ( Barsugli and Battisti 1998 ; Frankignoul 1985 ). In this passive air–sea coupling, the ocean responds to white-noise atmospheric internal variability through turbulent air–sea heat fluxes, giving rise to a red-noise response in sea surface temperature (SST; Frankignoul and Hasselmann 1977 ; Hasselmann

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Kohei Takatama and Niklas Schneider

. 10.1002/qj.49711247212 Chelton , D. B. , and S.-P. Xie , 2010 : Coupled ocean-atmosphere interaction at oceanic mesoscales . Oceanography , 23 , 52 – 69 , doi: 10.5670/oceanog.2010.05 . 10.5670/oceanog.2010.05 Chelton , D. B. , and Coauthors , 2001 : Observations of coupling between surface wind stress and sea surface temperature in the eastern tropical Pacific . J. Climate , 14 , 1479 – 1498 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<1479:OOCBSW>2.0.CO;2 . 10

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Dimitry Smirnov, Matthew Newman, Michael A. Alexander, Young-Oh Kwon, and Claude Frankignoul

1. Introduction Large-scale extratropical ocean–atmosphere interaction has long been recognized as dominated by atmospheric forcing of the ocean ( Davis 1976 ; Frankignoul and Hasselmann 1977 ; Frankignoul 1985 ). However, ocean–atmosphere coupling varies considerably across the midlatitude ocean basins, with oceanic processes likely to be more important to sea surface temperature (SST) variability in the vicinity of the western boundary currents (WBCs) and their associated SST fronts ( Qiu

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Xiaohui Ma, Ping Chang, R. Saravanan, Dexing Wu, Xiaopei Lin, Lixin Wu, and Xiuquan Wan

a slab ocean mixed layer model, as elegantly demonstrated by Barsugli and Battisti (1998) . The latter involves complex interactions between atmospheric storm tracks and SST fronts along intense ocean western boundary current (WBCs) ( Nakamura et al. 2004 , 2008 ), which are less understood. Many recent studies on midlatitude atmosphere–ocean interactions focus on the latter mechanism. Special attention has been paid to the Kuroshio Extension region (KER) in the North Pacific and the Gulf

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Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Bunmei Taguchi, and Shang-Ping Xie

ocean-atmosphere interaction at oceanic mesoscales . Oceanography , 23 ( 4 ), 52 – 69 . Enomoto , T. , A. Kuwano-Yoshida , N. Komori , and W. Ohfuchi , 2008 : Description of AFES 2: Improvements for high-resolution and coupled simulations. High Resolution Numerical Modelling of the Atmosphere and Ocean, K. Hamilton and W. Ohfuchi, Eds., Springer, 77–97. Kawatani , Y. , and M. Takahashi , 2003 : Simulation of the baiu front in a high resolution AGCM . J. Meteor. Soc. Japan

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Niklas Schneider and Bo Qiu

1. Introduction Satellite-borne observations of the atmospheric response to fronts of sea surface temperature (SST) have revolutionized the understanding of midlatitude air–sea interaction ( Xie 2004 ; Small et al. 2008 ). While the traditional, large-scale view holds that the ocean primarily responds to forcing by the atmosphere, the ocean mesoscale shows a ubiquitous imprint of SST fronts on the atmospheric boundary layer ( Chelton and Xie 2010 ; Xie 2004 ). For scales shorter than about

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Fumiaki Ogawa and Thomas Spengler

. Shimpo , 2004 : Observed associations among storm tracks, jet streams and midlatitude oceanic fronts . Earth’s Climate: The Ocean–Atmosphere Interaction , Geophys. Monogr ., Vol. 147, Amer. Geophys. Union, 329–345, https://doi.org/10.1029/147GM18 . 10.1029/147GM18 Nonaka , M. , H. Nakamura , B. Taguchi , N. Komori , A. Yoshida-Kuwano , and K. Takaya , 2009 : Air–sea heat exchanges characteristic to a prominent midlatitude oceanic front in the South Indian Ocean as simulated in a

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