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Norman G. Loeb, Hailan Wang, Fred G. Rose, Seiji Kato, William L. Smith Jr, and Sunny Sun-Mack

right-hand sides of Eqs. (11) and (12) are associated with variations in the atmosphere and sun and their covariability, and are independent of the surface. Terms within the second set of square brackets involve surface–atmosphere interactions. Note that δ F S ↑ depends upon variations in both α and F S ↓ . To determine the atmosphere-only (ATM) contribution to the anomaly, we first evaluate Eqs. (11) and (12) using a climatological surface albedo ( α ¯ ): (13) δ F T ↑ ⁡ ( ATM ) = [ r

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Jake J. Gristey, J. Christine Chiu, Robert J. Gurney, Keith P. Shine, Stephan Havemann, Jean-Claude Thelen, and Peter G. Hill

and applied in its broadband form, it is fundamentally an intricate spectral quantity. Such intricacy results from wavelength specific interactions between the incoming solar radiation and atmospheric gases, aerosols, clouds, and the surface. Since it is often precisely these atmospheric and surface properties that we seek to understand from RSR measurements, the spectral dimension contains a vast amount of relevant information ( Feldman et al. 2011 ; Coddington et al. 2012 ; King and Vaughan

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Elodie Charles, Benoit Meyssignac, and Aurélien Ribes

the memory in the atmosphere and land is much shorter, it is not clear whether such an approach would also work with atmospheric variables. This remains to be tested. Acknowledgments We acknowledge the World Climate Research Programme’s Working Group on Coupled Modelling, which is responsible for CMIP, and we thank the climate modeling groups for producing and making available their model output. For CMIP the U.S. Department of Energy’s Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison

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