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Heather Tollerud, Jesslyn Brown, Tom Loveland, Rezaul Mahmood, and Norman Bliss

et al. (2009 , 2010) , and Saatchi et al. (2013) . Land–atmosphere feedbacks enhance the importance of drought impacts on vegetation. Climate-forced changes in vegetation produce feedbacks to the atmospheric system because of modifications in biogeophysical properties. When vegetation is water stressed, albedo increases and latent energy flux decreases, which may decrease atmospheric instability, convection, and cloud development. Human-forced LULC changes further complicate these land–atmosphere

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Michael A. White, Peter E. Thornton, Steven W. Running, and Ramakrishna R. Nemani

local to global scales is therefore central topic for carbon cycle researchers, foresters, land and resource managers, and politicians. For recent or current NPP estimates, satellite remote sensing can be used (e.g., Potter et al. 1993 ) but for research investigating pre-1970s time periods or future climate scenarios, simulation models are required. Models have been used to simulate regional water and carbon cycles under current and historical climates ( Nemani et al. 1993 ; Running 1994 ), soil

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Daniel E. Comarazamy, Jorge E. González, Jeffrey C. Luvall, Douglas L. Rickman, and Pedro J. Mulero

-scale trade wind advection, coastal tropical cities will not be affected by drought-inducing higher cloud bases due to changes in the Bowen ratio over land. However, this hypothesis remains inconclusive, and we believe it underestimates the complexity of the competing multiscale factors involved in these land–ocean–atmosphere interactions. Thus, a number of research questions arise regarding the understanding of these and other competing effects due to LCLU changes in tropical coastal regions. These

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Weile Wang, Bruce T. Anderson, Dara Entekhabi, Dong Huang, Robert K. Kaufmann, Christopher Potter, and Ranga B. Myneni

similar magnitude range as the observed values ( Figure 9 , dark solid line), while the spectra of the random inputs are essentially “flat” ( Figure 9 , gray dash line). When the model uses the full value of θ , the output precipitation has larger magnitude differences between high and low frequencies (not shown). The overestimated red spectra of the model simulations may be due to the fact that the strength of land–atmosphere interactions in the observed system has monthly/seasonal variability ( W1

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Taikan Oki and Y. C. Sud

1. Introduction General circulation models (GCMs) are now becoming sufficiently realistic in simulating the rainfall, biosphere–atmosphere interactions, and land hydrology. This has been accomplished because of modern state-of-the-art land surface models are able to generate realistic evaporation and precipitation, provided the soil moisture initialization and rainfall forcing (inputs) are realistic (e.g., Oki et al., 1997 ). Chen et al. ( Chen et al.,1997 ) estimated (Project for

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Douglas A. Miller and Richard A. White

1. Climate and hydrology model requirements for soil information Over the past several decades the climate and hydrology modeling communities have been developing increasingly sophisticated parameterizations of the interaction between the land surface and the atmosphere in so-called soil–vegetation–atmosphere transfer schemes (SVATS). A major requirement of these process descriptions is an understanding of the surface and subsurface nature of the soil environment. The soil controls the downward

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Justin E. Bagley, Ankur R. Desai, Paul C. West, and Jonathan A. Foley

an ecosystem provides are altered ( Costanza et al. 1997 ; Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005 ; Foley et al. 2005 ). These goods and services provide basic human needs ranging from food production and water supply to soil formation and waste treatment. The regulation of local and regional climates by land–atmosphere interactions ( Foley et al. 2007 ; West et al. 2010 , hereafter WE10 ) is one of these important services. As natural vegetation is removed and replaced with pastures and

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Keith J. Harding, Tracy E. Twine, and Yaqiong Lu

vegetation has been recently added to many regional and global climate models after primarily being incorporated only in offline (uncoupled) land surface models. In addition, the large impact that land–atmosphere coupling has on the warm-season climate of the Great Plains ( Delire et al. 2004 ; Koster et al. 2003 ; Koster et al. 2004 ) implies that modeling studies that investigate the regional climate impacts of irrigation should incorporate biosphere–atmosphere interactions that may influence the

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Trevor Lewis and Walter Skinner

variations in land cover, such as vegetation and surface water ( Roy et al., 1972 ; Blackwell et al., 1980 ; Cermak et al., 1992 ; Lewis and Wang, 1992 ; Lewis and Wang, 1998 ). These effects must be modeled and accounted for. The underground temperature anomalies from surface cover changes, both temporal and spatial, have been shown to be both consistently and accurately predicted by simple models. GST histories inverted from borehole temperatures are site specific. To reach conclusions on climatic

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Jianjun Ge, Nathan Torbick, and Jiaguo Qi

Introduction By changing the fluxes of mass and energy between ecosystems and the atmosphere, human modification of the land surface impacts regional and global climate processes ( Pielke et al. 2002 ; Foley et al. 2003 ). Using land–climate modeling techniques, impacts of land-use and land-cover changes on the Earth system can be studied and monitored. Most regional and global atmospheric models developed 20 years ago either ignored or oversimplified the interactions of the atmosphere with

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