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Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Aaron Kennedy, and Sujay V. Kumar

predictability, primarily in global climate models and over large spatial scales ( Koster et al. 2004 ; van den Hurk et al. 2010 ; Hirschi et al. 2011 ). The initial communication and interaction between the land and atmosphere always occurs on local scales, making the process-level understanding and focus of LoCo research essential in order to fully understand the impact of L–A coupling on dry and wet extremes. As described in S11 , from a LoCo perspective the land–PBL coupling can be broken down into a

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Ruth E. Comer and Martin J. Best

1. Introduction Soil moisture plays an important role in modifying the behavior of the atmosphere by its influence on land surface fluxes of moisture, energy, carbon, and trace gases [ Seneviratne et al. (2010) and references therein]. Of particular interest is the way in which the effects of these moisture and energy fluxes combine to create feedbacks on precipitation. Such feedbacks are complex because of their dependence on a variety of mechanisms. The scarcity of observations of soil

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Craig R. Ferguson, Eric F. Wood, and Raghuveer K. Vinukollu

1. Introduction Land surface–atmosphere interaction (henceforth, coupling), or degree to which anomalies in the land surface state (i.e., soil wetness, soil texture, surface roughness, temperature, and overlying vegetation composition and structure) can affect (through complex controls on the partitioning of surface turbulent fluxes) the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and, in extreme cases, rainfall generation, is an important—if not the single most fundamental—criterion for evaluating

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Xubin Zeng, Zhuo Wang, and Aihui Wang

1. Introduction Land–atmosphere interaction plays an important role in weather, climate, and global/regional environmental change. For this reason, various international programs have been established in the past three decades to address the relevant scientific issues, such as the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX; http://www.gewex.org ), the (earlier) Biospheric Aspects of the Hydrological Cycle (BASC; Kabat et al. 2004 ), and (its successor) integrated Land Ecosystem–Atmosphere

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Agustín Robles-Morua, Enrique R. Vivoni, and Alex S. Mayer

radiation suggests that correspondence may exist between runoff mechanisms, which typically depend on seasonal wetness, and the land–atmosphere interactions arising during the NAM. Several studies have investigated how soil moisture plays a role in land–atmosphere exchanges and their impact on subsequent rainfall generation in the NAM region (e.g., Small 2001 ; Xu et al. 2004 ; Vivoni et al. 2009 ). This interaction arises from a positive soil moisture–rainfall feedback ( Eltahir 1998 ) that has been

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Keith J. Harding and Peter K. Snyder

precipitation globally over land. De Ridder and Gallée (1998) simulated conditions that favored increased moist convective development in southern Israel. Limited computational resources have prevented many models from being run at sufficiently high spatial resolutions to adequately resolve small-scale land–atmosphere interactions and mesoscale convection ( Segal et al. 1998 ). Modeling studies run at coarse spatial resolutions over large areas provide a good sense of the general impacts of irrigation on

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Enrique R. Vivoni

partitioning estimates that span the seasonal vegetation evolution and sample representative ecosystems in a catchment. Improved estimates of ET and its partitioning obtained from field studies and modeling are necessary for assessing ecological controls on regional hydrology and land–atmosphere interactions during the North American monsoon. Acknowledgments Funding from the Army Research Office (Grant 56059-EV-PCS), NOAA Climate Program Office (Grant GC07-019), NSF IRES Program (Grant OISE 0553852), USDA

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