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Jesse O. Bash, Patricia Bresnahan, and David R. Miller

. , and S. Planton , 1989 : A simple parameterization of land surface processes for meteorological models. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 117 , 536 – 549 . Poissant , L. , M. Amyot , M. Pilote , and D. Lean , 2000 : Mercury water–air exchange over the upper St. Lawrence River and Lake Ontario. Environ. Sci. Technol. , 34 , 3069 – 3078 . Raupach , M. R. , 1991 : Vegetation–atmosphere interactions in homogeneous and heterogeneous terrain: Some implications of mixed-layer dynamics

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George Kallos, Marina Astitha, Petros Katsafados, and Chris Spyrou

significant variations in each area. This is mainly due to the differential heating between the two land areas (southern Europe and North Africa) and the Mediterranean Sea. Owing to these complicated flow patterns, the air pollutants released from various sources located in the surrounding areas can be transferred long distances, in a complex fashion ( Kallos et al. 1993 , 1998a ; Luria et al. 1996 ; Dayan and Levy 2002 ; Dayan and Lamb 2005 ). Landscape variability and, especially, land

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Ho-Chun Huang, Xin-Zhong Liang, Kenneth E. Kunkel, Michael Caughey, and Allen Williams

meteorological model in episodic studies of air quality. For regional climate applications, the buffer zone treatment, ocean interface, and improved cloud–radiation interactions ( Liang et al. 2001 , 2004 ) have been incorporated in the RCM used in this study. As noted above, small biases that are not important in short MMM integrations can be critical in long RCM simulations. To reproduce the best proxy of climate conditions for the present and future climate, the RCM requires more a stringent and

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