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Jessica C. A. Baker, Dayana Castilho de Souza, Paulo Y. Kubota, Wolfgang Buermann, Caio A. S. Coelho, Martin B. Andrews, Manuel Gloor, Luis Garcia-Carreras, Silvio N. Figueroa, and Dominick V. Spracklen

evaluation approaches over the past decade helping to drive improvements in model development, and to assess the credibility of future climate projections ( Eyring et al. 2016a ; Duveiller et al. 2018 ; Eyring et al. 2019 , 2020 ; Fasullo 2020 ). In South America, interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere are particularly important for climate, and thus need to be accurately represented in climate models. Studies integrating remote sensing and reanalysis datasets have highlighted the

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Paul A. Dirmeyer, Yan Jin, Bohar Singh, and Xiaoqin Yan

surface states on global climate have relied on parameterizations of the land surface coupled to weather and climate models. This modeling approach is used to understand large-scale patterns and long-term statistics (cf. Seneviratne et al. 2010 ). The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5; Taylor et al. 2012 ) provides an opportunity for multimodel assessment of the evolving nature of land–atmosphere interactions from past to present to future. A much broader evaluation is possible

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Li Liu, Renhe Zhang, and Zhiyan Zuo

, Z. , Paredes P. , Liu Y. , Chi W. W. , and Pereira L. S. , 2015 : Modelling transpiration, soil evaporation and yield prediction of soybean in north China plain . Agric. Water Manage. , 147 , 43 – 53 , doi: 10.1016/j.agwat.2014.05.004 . Wu, W. , and Dickinson R. E. , 2004 : Time scales of layered soil moisture memory in the context of land–atmosphere interaction . J. Climate , 17 , 2752 – 2764 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<2752:TSOLSM>2.0.CO;2 . Wu, W. , Geller M. A

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Bart J. J. M. van den Hurk and Erik van Meijgaard

1. Introduction Land–atmosphere interaction is manifest at a wide range of spatial and temporal scales ( Van den Hurk and Blyth 2008 ). The planetary boundary layer is affected by the evaporation from the surface by changing the atmospheric humidity, which changes surface evaporation by a modified humidity gradient within a couple of hours. The lifting condensation level (LCL) is strongly coupled to the surface relative humidity and soil moisture ( Betts 2004 ). The ability of the atmosphere to

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Joshua K. Roundy and Eric F. Wood

interactions ( Koster et al. 2000 ). There has been a great deal of work over the last decade to quantify land–atmosphere interactions and feedbacks over a variety of scales that utilize observations and prediction models. Working groups as part of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) initiative have done much of this work. One such effort focuses on the local land–atmosphere coupling through diagnosing the interactions between the land surface and the planetary boundary layer for models

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Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Christa D. Peters-Lidard, and Sujay V. Kumar

1. Introduction The inherent coupled nature of earth’s energy and water cycles places significant importance on the proper representation and diagnosis of land–atmosphere (LA) interactions in hydrometeorological prediction models ( Entekhabi et al. 1999 ; Betts and Silva Dias 2010 ). Unfortunately, the disparate resolutions and complexities of the governing processes have made it difficult to quantify these interactions in models or observations ( Angevine 1999 ; Betts 2000 ; Cheng and

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Binayak P. Mohanty and Jianting Zhu

-based lookup tables and/or point-scale pedotransfer functions to estimate soil hydraulic properties is one of the weakest links in current National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) land surface modeling efforts (C. D. Peters-Lidard 2005, personal communication). From land–atmosphere interaction perspective with model grid/pixel scale ranging from hundreds of meters to several kilometers, soil hydraulic properties’ variability may include overlapping small to large (nested) spatial structures due

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Anna M. Wilson and Ana P. Barros

orographic land–atmosphere interactions associated with the observed diurnal cycle of warm rainfall in the SAM, including reverse orographic enhancement and cloud immersion. WB15 showed that patterns of moisture convergence in weak and strong synoptic forcing conditions modified by the terrain result in “hot spots” consistent with LLCF formation patterns that support seeder–feeder interactions with propagating precipitation systems as proposed by WB14 . From observations ( WB14 ; WB15 ), a synthesis

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Eli J. Dennis and Ernesto Hugo Berbery

1. Introduction It has long been understood that the land surface is a critical component of the climate system and that soil moisture is a key factor for determining land surface–atmosphere interactions and coupling ( Sellers et al. 1996 ; Koster et al. 2004 ; Seneviratne et al. 2010 ). The strength of the coupling between soil moisture and other variables depends on the time scale, ranging from daily-to-weekly time scales ( Santanello et al. 2011 ; Tawfik and Dirmeyer 2014 ) to monthly

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Zhong Zhong, Yuan Sun, Xiu-Qun Yang, Weidong Guo, and Haishan Chen

describe the exchange of water, heat, and momentum across the land–atmosphere interface ( Brutsaert 1998 ; Albertson and Parlange 1999 ). Substantial progresses in representing the role of surface heterogeneity on land–atmosphere interaction has been achieved ( Henderson-Sellers and Pitman 1992 ; Lyons and Halldin 2004 ; Kanda et al. 2007 ; Ma et al. 2008 ; Brunsell et al. 2011 ). Numerous efforts have attempted to address the land surface parameters, such as roughness length, to ascertain area

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